Definition of the Greenhouse Effect
The greenhouse effect is known as the rising temperature of the earth caused by changes in the composition of the atmosphere. So that causes the sun's rays on earth are dynamic (fixed) and not reflected perfectly to get out of the atmosphere.
In 1824, a scientist named Joseph Fourier introduced for the first time about the greenhouse effect to the public. Joseph Fourier argues that the greenhouse effect is caused by the surface heating process of a celestial body (satellite or planet) caused by the state and composition of its atmosphere.
Causes of the Greenhouse Effect
The cause of the greenhouse effect is due to an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide gas (CO 2 ) and other gases in the atmosphere. The increased concentration of carbon dioxide gas is due to the amount of combustion by oil fuel, organic fuel, and coal so that it exceeds the ability of sea water and plants to absorb it.
Energy that can enter the Earth:
- 25% absorbed by clouds
- 25% reflected by other particles or clouds in the atmosphere
- 45% absorbed by the earth's surface
- 10% reflected again by the surface of the earth
In the event that energy is absorbed then the energy reflected back will form radiation infrared by the surface of the earth and clouds. However, most of the infrared emitted by the earth will be held by gas (can be CO gas 2 or other gas) and clouds to be returned to the surface of the earth. Under normal circumstances, the greenhouse effect is needed, i.e. if there is a greenhouse effect then the temperature difference during the day and night on earth will not differ greatly.
Another cause that can result in the greenhouse effect is NO (nitrogen monoxide), NO 2 (Nitrogen dioxide), sulfur dioxide, and some organic compounds for example, methane gas, CFC (chloroflourocarbons). Gases are important factors that can increase the occurrence of the greenhouse effect.
The Greenhouse Effect Process
- When the sun emits light will be absorbed by the earth (Earth) in the form of ultraviolet radiation) and reflected back by the earth into the form of light infrared (infrared).
- Sunlight entering the earth (as heat), partly will be reflected by the surface of the earth to the atmosphere (light colored) ), and some are absorbed by the earth (dark in color, can be gases that cause the greenhouse effect) contained in the atmosphere
- Well, those gases are the factors that cause the greenhouse effect (black matter), that is, the light entering the earth will be reflected again into heat (infrared light which has a short wavelength).
- If the wavelength of a light is shorter, it will be more heat. The amount of content and concentration of gases such as CO 2 and so on will cause the amount of heat energy released, so that the Earth's atmosphere will also warmer. That event was called greenhouse effect (greenhouse effect).
Earth's atmosphere consists of several layers, namely: thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere and troposphere. The troposphere (the lowest layer) is an important part of the greenhouse effect.
35% of solar radiation will not reach the earth's surface. Shortwave radiation (such as ultraviolet rays, aplha rays, beta rays) will be absorbed almost entirely in the top 3 layers (thermosphere, mesosfir, stratosphere). other rays will be reflected and scattered back into space by clouds or other particles.
While the remaining 65% will enter the lowest layer (troposphere). In this layer 14% will be absorbed by dust, water vapor and certain gases, which reach the earth's surface is only about 51%. Of the 51%, 37% direct radiation and diffuse radiation that has experienced scattering by particles or gases in the troposphere layer about 14%.
Radiation absorbed by the earth, some will be absorbed (then emitted again in the form of light infrared ) partly reflected.
Impact of the Greenhouse Effect
The occurrence of global warming
Global warming is a phenomenon where the temperature on the surface of the earth increases so it becomes so hot. This can be dangerous for all living things, including humans.
Ice in the polar regions will melt
Ice melting events in the polar regions are drastically triggered by temperatures from hot Earth temperatures from year to year. Resulting in ecosystems that live in polar regions could be threatened with death or extinction.
Sea water levels will increase
Sea water levels will increase, related to the melting of ice in the polar regions. This can cause populations living in coastal areas to have to look for new places due to high sea levels. So that the land area on earth will be narrower.
The sea will become increasingly acidic
As a result of increasing greenhouse gases (such as CO 2 etc.) in the atmosphere, causing sea water to also absorb gas so that sea water will be acidic and will cause the destruction of various ecosystems that live in it, such as fish, coral reefs, etc.
Reduced ozone layer
Nitrous oxide (NO) is a greenhouse gas that can resulting in the depletion of the ozone layer in the atmosphere. If the ozone layer is thinned or reduced it will cause a lot of ultraviolet rays emitted by the sun to penetrate to the surface of the earth so that it can cause death in living creatures contained in it.
That is the understanding of the greenhouse effect and its causes and processes that need to be known. Hopefully useful and easy to understand!