Definition of National Identity
National identity comes from two words, namely national identity. Identity is an absorption word from the English language which means identification, a sign that makes something look different from the others. Whereas national refers to a group with a large scale that has a common history, culture, language, and ideals. And in this case it is a nation.
Therefore, we can interpret national identity as a characteristic possessed by a nation that will distinguish the nation from other nations. And every nation in the world has its own character, characteristics, and uniqueness . The characteristics possessed by each nation develop from the nation's identity.
There are two factors that support the birth of the national identity of the Indonesian people, namely objective and subjective factors. The objective factors are related to geological, ecological and demographic factors. While subjective factors related to the social life of society, such as historical, social, political, and culture of the Indonesian nation.
Now, to deepen your understanding of national identity, it helps you to know how expert opinions regarding the notion of national identity. Here we list 3 opinions.
1. Koenta Wibisono
According to Koenta Wibisono, national identity is an attempt by someone to implement behavior that is formed from the manifestation of cultural values from the beginning of his life to the end of his life. This can be interpreted that national identity is a characteristic acquired during his life.
2. Dean A. Mix and Sandra M. Hawley
According to Dean A. Mix and Sandra M. Hawley, national identity is a nation that has a political structure, which includes provisions regarding the legal territorial borders of the government and recognition of other nations .
National identity is defined as a guideline that applies to everyone regarding citizenship. The guideline serves as an effort to instill a sense of nationalism towards each of its citizens in a sovereign nation.
Elements of National Identity
We know that Indonesia is a country rich in wealth. diversity. This makes Indonesia has a variety of characteristics that can be used as national identity. Therefore, it can be said that the national identity in Indonesia is formed from a collection of identities that developed from heterogeneous societies.
So what constitutes such national identities? There are 4 elements forming national identity, namely ethnicity, religion, culture and language. Now for more details, here is an explanation of each element of national identity.
1. Suku Bangsa
Tribes are a social group that shares the basic features of the culture and origins of the group. Awareness of these similarities makes them bound and usually also strengthened by the unity of language.
According to BPS data in 2010, Indonesia itself has 1340 ethnic groups. Some examples of ethnic groups in Indonesia include Javanese, Sundanese, Batak, Madurese, Betawi, and Buginese.
Indonesia is a pluralistic nation. In addition to diverse ethnic groups, Indonesia also gives freedom to embrace religion according to their respective beliefs. There are 6 recognized religions in Indonesia, namely Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.
Of these 6 religions, Islam has the largest number of adherents, around 80 percent of total population ] in Indonesia. In every religion there are usually different schools. By this diversity, Indonesia is very prone to disintegration.
In addition to having diverse ethnic groups, Indonesia also has hundreds of cultures that shape Indonesia's national identity. Culture itself is a way of life and development which is passed down from generation to generation.
Culture is used as a benchmark of ethics or moral values for the community to assess the events around them. Culture can take the form of language, art, livelihoods, technology systems, and so on. Cultural diversity in Indonesia is a wealth of the Indonesian people.
The large number of ethnic groups in Indonesia is accompanied by the many regional languages that are developing. At present, Indonesia has 748 regional languages. The many languages that exist will certainly make it difficult for people in to communicate . Therefore, one language was chosen to be designated as the national language, namely Indonesian.
Characteristics of National Identity
There are three characteristics of national identity, namely as follows.
] 1. Equality of Fate
One characteristic of national identity is the equality of fate experienced by the Indonesian people. To reach its current position, Indonesia has gone through many important events. One of them was the event against colonialism.
Previously, the Indonesian people experienced various sufferings and slavery. Only then did the Indonesian people collect together the spirit of the struggle and drive out the invaders. Passing various events together becomes one of the characteristics of national identity.
2. Unity of Indonesia
Another characteristic is the unity of Indonesia. As we know, Indonesia is a country that consists of thousands of islands from Sabang to Merauke. Based on data from Directorate General of General Government Indonesia is currently recorded to have 17,504 too.
This makes Indonesia the largest archipelagic country in the world. From the thousands of islands, different ethnic, cultural and linguistic groups have also developed. And this has become a characteristic and characteristic of Indonesia, making Indonesia known among other nations.
3. The Desire for Independence
Everyone certainly wants independence. And so is the entire population of Indonesia. The Indonesian people want to be free from colonialism in any form, both physical and mental.
Not only applies to the Indonesian people, the Indonesian people also reject all forms of colonialism in the world. This rejection is contained in the 1945 Constitution which says that all forms of colonialism on earth must be abolished.
Examples of National Identity
Apart from explaining the understanding, elements, and the characteristics of national identity, here we will also give examples of anyway which can be said of Indonesian national identity. The following are examples of Indonesia's national identity.
Pancasila is the ideology of the Indonesian state. Pancasila is the basis of the state and view of life of the Indonesian people. There are five precepts, namely Godhead, Humanity, Unity, Democracy, and Justice
Borobudur is Indonesia's national identity in the form of historical heritage. Borobudur Temple has been recognized as the largest Buddhist temple in the world by Guinness World Record .
Batik is Indonesia's national identity in the form of art.
4. Red and White Flag
In accordance with Article 35 of the 1945 Constitution, the Indonesian state flag is red and white. The flag becomes one of the national identities of the Indonesian people because it distinguishes Indonesia from other countries.
5. Indonesia Raya song
Every country has its own national anthem, and so does Indonesia. According to Article 36B of the 1945 Constitution, the national anthem of Indonesia is Indonesia Raya.
Well, this article may be about the meaning of national identity. Hopefully this article can strengthen the reader's understanding of the notion of national identity and how it can be used in daily life. Thank you.