Definition of Ius Sanguinis
Jus Sanguinis or commonly known as ius sanguinis is a right to become a citizen of a person who is born based on citizenship that is owned by his biological father or mother. A country that adheres to the ius sanguinis rule will recognize a person as a citizen if one of his father or biological mother has a related citizenship status.
A country that adheres to the principle of Ius Sanguinis considers that blood relations are stronger and are very important in determining one's citizenship. The Ius Sanguinis principle has been known since the days of the empire in Asia and Europe.
The enormous impact due to the implementation of the ius sanguinis system is the emergence of the majority ethnicity in a country . This happened because wherever the baby of that country was born, he would still be a part of the country of Ius Sanguinis.
One example of a country that uses the principle of Ius Sanguinis is Germany. For example, there is a German couple who gave birth to their baby outside of Germany. The baby will continue to be recognized as a legitimate German citizen because his father and mother are German citizens. Besides Germany, there are several other countries that embrace the principle of Ius Sanguinis, for example China, Malaysia, Japan and Croatia.
Definition of Ius Soli
What is meant by ius soli is a right to obtain citizenship for someone born in a certain area. In this understanding, a baby born outside his native country can be a citizen of the place where he was born. Ius soli is the opposite of ius sanguinis. The meaning of the word ius soli is the right to territory, while ius sanguinis is the right to blood.
Countries that embrace ius soli will have many citizens from various ethnic, racial, religious and ethnic groups. Some countries that embrace ius soli are Argentina, Mexico, the United States and Canada. Typically, a country that understands ius soli is a country that is sovereign and its decision cannot be denied by any country.
For example, a baby of Brazilian descent was born in Canada. So the newborn is a Canadian citizen, not a Brazilian citizen. This is because Brazil also adheres to the principle of ius soli, namely the consideration of one's citizenship based on the place of birth.
There are several considerations made by a country when determining what understanding will be used in its government system. An example is the United States. This superpower uses the principle of ius soli as a concept of citizenship because it is used to increase the quantity of its citizens .
As a liberal state whose people tend not to marry, adding new citizens this way must be done. The aim is that America does not run out of human resources from within its own country.
Differences between Ius Sanguinis and Ius Soli
There are some differences that arise due to this understanding of citizenship, namely:
1. Purpose of application
The main difference in the two ideas of citizenship is the purpose of its application. A country certainly has a reason for using these two understandings. In countries that adhere to the principle of ius soli, they want to increase the quantity of their citizens in this way.
These countries are usually liberal countries whose people do not want to have direct descendants or biological children. Whereas a country that adheres to the principle of ius sanguinis has the aim of maintaining the ethnic descent of the country in various parts of the world. That is, wherever the person is located, he will still be recognized as a citizen of ius sanguinis because of blood relations with his parents.
2. The location of the country of application
Countries which carry out ius sanguinis understand are usually located in Europe and East Asia. As explained earlier, the application of ius sanguinis understand has occurred since the imperial era.
This has continued until now. While countries that adhere to the principle of ius soli are usually located in the western part of the earth, such as the United States and Canada. This happens because countries in the west are usually more independent than countries in the East.
3. Obtaining citizenship
In ius sanguinis, a child will get the same citizenship as his parents wherever he was born, both domestically and abroad.
Whereas in ius soli, blood relations are not important because it is the basis for acquisition A child's citizenship is the country where he was born. It does not matter if a baby does not have the same citizenship as his parents.
Examples of Ius Sanguinis and Ius Soli
In understanding this principle of citizenship, of course there are still confusion if no examples are included. There are several examples that can be used as a matter of understanding about ius soli and ius sanguinis. The following are:
1. Pairs of the same nationality, each of whom adheres to ius soli
For example, A and B are a married couple of Brazilian descent who live in America. Person A carries a child and gives birth in America. So, until the child turns 17 years old or adult, this child will get facilities as a citizen of the United States. This happened because the child was born in America whose country adheres to the understanding of ius soli.
2. Couples of different nationalities, living in a country that understands ius soli
Si A and Si B are a married couple. A is a citizen of Brazil and B is an Indonesian citizen. The couple lives in Brazil and gives birth to their children there. The child automatically becomes a citizen of Brazil. This is because the child was born in Brazil who adheres to the principle of ius soli, not because the A who is his biological parent is a Brazilian citizen.
3. Ius Sanguinis Citizens living in the country of Ius Sanguinis
For example, there are Germans living in China. Both of these countries are countries that embrace ius sanguinis or blood related. If the German citizen gives birth in China, then the child of the German person will remain a German citizen. The country of birth of the child will not affect his nationality.
4. Different Couples Nationality, Living in a State of Understanding Ius Sanguinis
Si A is a British citizen and Si B is a citizen of the United States. They live in the Philippines and give birth to their children there. The child will get British citizenship. Why is that? A is a British citizen who adheres to ius sanguinis or blood relations, while B is an American citizen who adheres to ius soli. While the Philippines is a country that adheres to the principle of blood relations or ius sanguinis. Then the child will get British citizenship, according to his biological parents.
Here he is, some explanations about the notion of ius sanguinis and ius soli. Each country has its own policies which could have a positive impact on the country.