The term "routing" is known in the world of networking. Routing is a process of sending data using a router that is a device capable of sending data packets over the internet or the network to its destination.
The routing process occurs at the third layer (ie the network layer, for example the internet protocol) of the stack protocol (protocol stack) seven layers of OSI.
In order for the routing process to work, the things that must be considered in router are the destination address, the various routers involved in order to learn a remote network that was created, and the router best on each network.
Information about routers is stored in the routing table, which explains how to find remote networks.
Types of Routing
Types of routing can be distinguished based on the nature of routing, routed and routing protocol and class in routing protocol. For more details below will be explained regarding the distribution of types of routing:
A. Based on the Nature of Routing
1. Static Routing
Represents the routing performed by the Network Administrators manually. Namely by inputting the routing table settings that are plugged in from the router. This arrangement will describe the path from a packet to its destination through which interface it will pass through.
- On a router CPU, there is no processing time (overhead).
- Between routers there is no use bandwidth .
- Security assurance, because network administrators will choose routing access settings on certain networks
- Administrators must be able to understand internetwork on a system and router, in order to connect and function correctly
- When a network is added to the internetwork, the network administrator must be able to add routing tables to all routers that are connected manually.
- On computer networks with large-scale static routing is not suitable for use.
2. Default Routing
Manually sending packets to the next hop router is a function of this routering. Namely by adding a router to the destination network, the remote control is not available in the routering table. Used in network which has one exit.
- Simple configuration, because administrators only need to enter one type of routing command only and all routes will be carried out / bypassed.
- There is an unneeded routing, which allows all routers to accept the routing (which is not needed). And the use of hardware increased and the work of the router took a long time.
3. Dynamic Routing
The routing process is carried out by creating an automatic data communication path, which is set according to configuration. If topology changes occur in the network, then the new routing path will be created by the router automatically. Dynamic routing is located at the computer layer network layer in the TCP / IP Protocol Suites. Dynamic routing also functions to find the network and update the routing table on the router.
- Only recognize the address of a particular host (which is connected to the router).
- If there is an additional network (network), then no need to reset all routers.
- Easier to use than static and default routing.
- Router workloads become heavy due to updates to the routing table at certain times.
- Speed of recognition and completeness routing table requires a long time.
B. Based on Routed and Routing Protocol
1. Routed Protocol
Is a protocol on a router used to send user data from one network to another. This routing protocol carries data traffic such as file transfers, e-mail and other network traffic. Examples of routed protocols: IPX, IP, DECnet and AppleTalk.
2. Routing protocol
Is a protocol on a computer network, its function is to dynamically study a network that is connected and to broadcast, and to study the existing network paths. If the router is different, you can exchange updates via the routing protocol. For example BGP, EIGRP, RIP and OSPF.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
One type of protocol in data communication. Its ability to exchange routes, collect routes, determine the route to its destination on a network. Equipped with an algorithm. BGP is a category of EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol) routing protocol.
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
Using different cost load balancing and algorithm advanced distance vector. The algorithm is a combination of link-state and distance vector and uses DUAL ( Diffusing Update Algorithm ) to calculate the shortest route.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Is a protocol that regulates routing tables according to routers connected. And the next router provides information to routers that are directly connected.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Standard routing used by several network vendors and described in RFC 2328. Equipped with a link-state algorithm or called the Dijkstra algorithm / SPF.
How it works ptotokol: the shortest path of the "tree" will be built and then filled with the best routes by the routing table generated from the "tree". OSPF only plays a role in supporting IP routing. Routing updates will occur when there is a change in network topology and are floaded.
C. Class in Routing Protocol
1. Distance vector
The protocol included in this class category will determine the best route to a network based on its route distance. Routes / routing routes with the shortest hop distance to the destination network will be the best path choice.
2. Link state
Another term is protocol shortest-path-first . The tablen routing on the router has a unique function, that is, the routing table function is separate and becomes 3 tables. The first serves to record changes from directly connected networks. The second serves to determine the topology of the entire internetwork. And the third function is for the routing table.
The latter protocol is included in the class category that uses aspects of distance-vector and link-state type routing protocols.
That is an explanation of the types of routing based on the nature of the routing, routing protocols and protocol classes used. Hopefully useful and easy to understand!