In the world of networking, you will find the term routing. Routing is something that is very vital in the world of networking. Because routing is the process of retrieving a data packet from a device and sending it through a network to another device on a different network. The tool in question is a router. If your network does not have a router, then obviously you are not doing routing
In order for a router to do the routing, there are things that must be known by the router, namely:
- Destination address
- Neighboring routers from where a router can learn a given remote network
- Routers that may be connected to all remote networks
- The best routers for each remote network
All information is stored in the routing table of a router. This routing table describes how to find remote networks.
The IP routing process within a computer network can be expressed in the following paragraph:
The default gateway of host 172.16.10.2 (Host_A) is configured to 172.16.10.1. In order to send packets from this host to the default gateway, the hardware address of the "Ethernet 0" interface of the router configured with IP address 172.16.10.1 should be known first. Why is it like that? The goal is that the packet can be submitted to the Data Link layer, then encapsulated into a frame, and sent to the router interface connected to the network 172.16.10.0. Hosts communicate only with hardware addresses on a LAN network. In order for Host_A to communicate with Host_B, Host_A must send the packet to the MAC address of the default gateway in the local network.
Now that the packet knows its routing paths, there are some types of wrong routing the only can be applied in the computer network. The types of routing are subdivided by their properties and protocols. As to how these routing types work, this article will peel it for you.
A. Properties of Routing
1. Static Routing
Static routing is routing done manually by Network Administrators. You do this by entering the routing settings into the routing table of the router. The arrangement defines the path of a packet with a destination to be passed through which interface.
The advantages and disadvantages of static routing or static routing can be a consideration for those who want to implement this type of routing. The advantages of static routing are:
- No overhead (processing time) on router CPU
- No bandwidth used among routers
- Security warranty, because network administrators can choose to manage access (19659003) The administrator must understand very well about the internetwork within a system and how each router is connected in order to properly set the router.
- If a network added to the internetwork, the Administrator must add a routing table to all routers connected manually.
- Static routing is not suitable for large-scale computer networks because to keep it going is a full-time job of its own.
2. Routing Default
This type of routing is used to send packets manually to the next hop router by adding a router to a destination network whose remote network is not in the routing table. Usually used on networks that have only one exit point. Typically, this type of routing is defined by the address: 0.0.0.0/0.
Routing default has its advantages, which is quite simple configuration. Administrator simply enter one routing command, then all the routes will be skipped. While the lack of default routing is the presence of unnecessary routing, because this routing allows all routers to accept unnecessary routing. It can raise the use of hardware and make the performance of the router become slow.
3. Dynamic Routing
Dynamic routing is a routing process that is done by creating a data communication path automatically in accordance with the configuration created. If there is a change in topology within the network, then the router will automatically create a new routing path. This type of routing resides in the network layer of a computer network in TCP / IP Protocol Suites.
Dynamic routing is used to find networks as well as to update routing tables on routers. This type of routing is easier to do than static and default routing. However, routing types simply exhaust the performance of data processing in the router CPU and bandwidth usage in the network.
Dynamic routing has several advantages, namely:
- Only introduce host addresses directly connected to routers
- Routers do not need to know all existing network address
- If there is addition of a new network, then all routers do not need to reset. Only the related routers will do it.
The dynamic routing loss is as follows:
- The workload of the router becomes heavier as it always updates the routing table at any given time.
- The introduction speed and completeness of the routing table are consuming long time. The reason is because the router will broadcast to all routers until there is a suitable routing table. Once the configuration is complete, the router has to wait for a while to have each router get all the IP addresses available.
B. Routed and Routing Protocol
In addition to the three types of routing described above, there are also several protocols in routing. This protocol is called routed protocol and routing protocol. What are the routing protocols?
1. Routed protocol
Routed protocols are protocols that can be routed by a router. Routed protocols are typically used to transmit user data from one network to another. Routed protocols carry data traffic such as e-mail, file transfers, web traffic, and more. Examples of routed protocols are: IP, IPX, AppleTalk, and DECnet
2. Routing protocol
Routing protocols are protocols in computer networks that are used to dynamically broadcast and study connected networks, and to learn the routes (network paths) available. With routing protocols, different routers can exchange updates between each other with other routers and get the most efficient routing route to the destination. Examples of routing protocols include OSPF, RIP, BGP, IGRP, and EIGRP
- RIP ( Routing Information Protocol is a protocol that provides routing tables based on directly connected routers. Then, the next router will provide information to the next router that is directly connected to the router
- OSPF ( Open Shortest Path First) . OSPF is an open standard routing protocol that has been applied by a number of network vendors and described in RFC 2328. OSPF works with a link-state algorithm called the Dijkstra / SPF algorithm. The workings of this protocol are: First, a "tree" with the shortest path will be built. Then, the routing table will be populated with the best paths generated from the "tree". OSPF only supports IP routing only. Routing updates will be performed floaded when network topology changes.
- EIGRP ( Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) . This routing protocol uses advanced distance vector algorithms and uses unequal cost load balancing. The algorithm used is a combination of distance vector and link-state, and uses Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) to calculate the shortest path . Cisco's basic command strongly supports this protocol, since it was created by Cisco Systems.
- BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). BGP is one type of routing protocol in the world of data communications. As a routing protocol, BGP has the ability to collect routes, exchange routes and determine the best route to a location within a network. Routing protocols must also be equipped with intelligent algorithms in finding the best path. But what distinguishes BGP from other routing protocols is that BGP belongs to the category of routing protocol type Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP).
C. Class in Routing Protocol
In the routing protocol, there are three types of classes that distinguish each protocol, including:
- Distance vector, protocols belonging to this class will find the best path to a network by assessing the distance traveled by the path. Routing paths with the least hop distance to the destination network would be the best path.
- Link state, also called the shortest-path-first protocol. The routing table function on the router that implements this type of protocol is quite unique, since the function of the routing table is divided into three separate tables . One for recording changes from directly connected networks, another to determine the topology of the entire internetwork, and one last table used as a routing table
- Hybrid, protocol included in this class uses aspects of the distance-vector type routing protocol and the link-state type routing protocol.
All of our articles this time around the types of routing types. Hopefully our article this time can increase your knowledge about routing in computer network