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Structure & Characteristics of EXPLANATION TEXT (+ Explanation)

Exploration itself is an absorption word from the English language explanation which means explanation. Based on this meaning, we can interpret explanatory texts as texts that contain explanations of a phenomenon or event, which can be natural, knowledge, social, and cultural phenomena .

Examples of explanatory texts that we often encounter, for example, are text that contains the process of volcanic eruptions, processes of rain, floods, earthquakes, and so on. You will often find this type of text in books such as science, geography or history.

In explanatory texts, you will get detailed information about the process of the phenomenon. In every phenomenon that occurs around us, there must be a sequence of cause and effect, both the previous events that caused the phenomena occur and the events that result from these phenomena.

Now, in this discussion, we will learn together about explanation text structure along with the characteristics and rules of explanatory text.

Explanation Text Structure

 Explanation Text Structure

In general, the structure in explanatory texts is divided into three parts, namely general statements, explanatory text structures

 and interpretation. </p>
<h3><span class= 1. General Statement

The explanatory text will be preceded by a general statement located in the first paragraph. In the general statement section, you will get a general description of the phenomena that will be discussed in the explanatory text, for example about the process of its existence and the process of its formation. This section must be concise, concise, and clear so that the reader wants to know more about the details of the event.

2. Explanatory Row

In the explanatory row, you will get detailed information about the phenomena discussed. Rows of explanations can consist of more than one paragraph. Here will also be explained the sequence of events before and after the phenomenon. For example the event that caused the phenomenon, how the phenomenon occurred, and the event / effect arising from the phenomenon.

3. Interpretation

And the last structure is interpretation. As the name implies, interpretation itself is the author's conclusion or response regarding events that have occurred. In explanatory text, actually the interpretation part is optional or optional. So, may not be included.

To strengthen your understanding of the structure of explanatory texts, here we have also provided examples of explanatory texts regarding the process of erupting mountains and the structure of their texts:  Text Structure of Explanations and Examples

General Statement

Here we will explain what a volcano erupts and a general description of the process of volcanic eruptions.

Eruption is a natural event that occurs when magma in a volcano penetrates the earth's surface. Volcano itself is a term we use to refer to the system of magma channels in the earth.

The eruption of volcanoes is triggered by activities around the magma chamber which causes the pressure in the magma chamber to increase. If the magma chamber is no longer able to withstand the pressure, then the magma inside will be ejected out until a process which we call a volcano erupts.

Explanatory Row

In this section the causes of volcanic eruptions occur and how the process occurs with the presentation more detail. In addition, it also explains the consequences arising from the eruption of the mountain.

The increased pressure in the magma chamber can be triggered by three things, namely the activity above, below, or in the magma chamber itself. Examples of activities under the magma chamber that cause increased pressure are when collisions occur between plates under the magma chamber.

Collision with these plates can cause the entry of magma from the Earth's mantle into the magma chamber. The entry of this new magma will cause the volume of magma in the magma chamber to increase. Increasing the volume of magma will cause the pressure in the magma chamber to increase.

Activity above the magma chamber can trigger a volcanic eruption when there is a decrease in the density of the rocks covering the magma channel. The decline in density will cause the rocks to soften and not be able to withstand the pressure of magma in the magma chamber.

And finally the activity in the magma chamber. Activity inside the magma chamber can also increase the pressure inside the magma chamber. This happens when the magma rocks in it crystallize and become denser among the other rocks around them. The dense structure causes the rocks to sink down and lift the liquid magma up. The rising of this liquid magma which will add pressure in the magma chamber.

The occurrence of volcanic eruptions can have a positive or negative impact on the surrounding community. The negative impact is when lava, ash, and hot clouds damage human settlements or even take lives.

Volcanic eruptions also produce materials that can interfere with breathing, paralyze activity in the surrounding area, and produce harmful gases for health. While the positive impact is that cold lava can fertilize the soil, produce materials that have high economic value, produce arrows water sources that can be used as a place of tourism, etc.


Contains conclusions from the contents previous paragraphs. This section also includes the author's response regarding the volcano eruption.

So, it can be concluded that there are various factors that cause volcanoes to erupt. These factors are also beyond human reach, where humans can only predict when a volcano erupts but cannot prevent it. Therefore, residents around the volcano must be more careful and responsive about the status of the volcano.

Characteristics of the Explanatory Text

After knowing the structure of the explanatory text, you should also know what are the characteristics of the explanatory text so that when there are questions about a text, you can identify whether the text is an explanatory text or not.

  • Has a structure as described above, namely general statements, a series of explanations, and interpretation.
  • Discusses natural phenomena or social
  • Information presented based on facts, not hoaks
  • Is informative and neutral, is not persuasive or has the intention to influence the reader
  • Information made scientific
  • Presented using sequence market or sequence of events.

Language Rules for Explanatory Texts

 Characteristics of the Explanation Text and Language Rules

In addition to the structure and characteristics of explanatory texts, you must also pay attention to the language rules used in explanatory texts in order to be able to make good explanatory texts.

  • Discuss general matters, generally not involving humans, for example the process of the appearance of rainbows, floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunami .
  • Can use scientific terms
  • Using time and causal conjunctions in the text
  • Using passive sentences
  • ] Many use material and relational verbs

Well, maybe that's all for the material this time. Hopefully the above explanation can help friends understand more deeply about the structure and characteristics of explanatory texts. If friends are still confused, please ask in the comments column. Thank you.


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