Southeast Sulawesi is one of the provinces on the island of Sulawesi with a capital in Kendari whose cultural heritage cannot be underestimated like other cultures in Indonesia, one of which can be seen in the traditional houses owned by this province.
Surely many who do not know the ins and outs of traditional houses from this province because indeed discussions about traditional houses are quite minimal to know. There are special features and uniqueness of each of these traditional houses, starting from the form, philosophy, and others that are related to the culture that is there.
Therefore, let us try to explore how the traditional house existing in Southeast Sulawesi and with these traditional houses we also know how the culture and customs there in influencing the construction of these traditional houses.
Traditional Houses of Southeast Sulawesi
Following is an explanation of each of the traditional houses of Southeast Sulawesi which are 3 types of houses, including:
1. Traditional House of Mekongga
This traditional house is a traditional house of the Raha tribe (mekongga) which means Poaiha with the size of a large, large, rectangular building. This building is made of wood with a roof and stands on large pillars about 20 feet high from the ground.
This building is in an open forest surrounded by alang-alang grass. The height of this building is around 60-70 feet which is used as a place for the king to hold ceremonial events.
This building consists of 12 support poles which means there are 12 influential leaders. Then there are 30 steps that mean there are 30 strands of wings of Kongga birds. In addition, there are 4 rooms / cubicles.
2. Banua Tada Traditional House
This traditional house is in the form of a stage house with wooden building materials without the use of nails. Banua Tada means elbow house. This traditional house is a relic of Sultanate of Buton . In this traditional house there are many symbols and decorations that are influenced by the concept of Sufism. The symbol and decoration symbolize the cultural values and local wisdom of the sultanate.
This traditional house consists of 3 types of houses, namely Kamali (Malige), Banua Tada Tare Pata Pale, and Banua Tada Tare Talu Pale. Following are the explanations, among others:
1. Laikas Traditional House (Malige)
This traditional house came from the Tolaki tribe who lived around the city of Kendari in the form of a stage house consisting of 3-4 floors. Under the traditional house is used a chicken or pig pen. The 1st and 2nd floors are used for the residence of the king and empress. The third floor functions as a storage of heirlooms. The fourth floor is used as meditation and worship. On the right or left side of the second floor there is a special room used to weave traditional clothes / cloth called "bone".
This traditional house does not use metal materials such as nails, but uses natural materials from nature in the form of wood and roof made from tassel alang-alang or nipah. For wooden beams used as poles and walls or home material used as boards. To merge the building using wooden pegs or wood fibers.
In building a house, the Tolaki tribe still uses a cultural value system that is divided by natural cosmology and refers to the body analogy. For the front of the house is analogous to two knees and the middle of the umbilical cord. On the back it is symbolized as two left and right legs and in the middle of the house is symbolized as a vital tool.
Vertically, this traditional house is divided into three parts, the under (bottom), top, and middle. For the function under the house section has been explained in the previous paragraph. The upper part of the house functions as a place of activity for both the homeowner and guests. As for the center of the house as the philosophy of the embodiment of the universe.
When viewed horizontally, the front of this traditional house is symmetrical in which the shape is associated with dynamic and formal nature of Tolaki . The front is called the facade, the bottom and the floor is called the human chest and abdomen. The upper part is called the human back, the roof is hair and is called the human face and pelvis.
2. The Banua Tada Pare Pata Pale and Tare Talu Pale Traditional Houses
The Tare Pata Pale traditional house is a four-angle elbow house which functions as a residence for court officials or employees. While the traditional house of Tare Talu Pale is a three-masted elbow house which functions as a place for ordinary people to live.
3. Traditional House of Buton
This traditional house is the same as other traditional houses whose building uses a stage structure which is composed of 4 floors. The ground floor of this traditional house is bigger than the 2nd floor. The 2nd floor is bigger than the 3rd floor and the 4th floor is wider than the 3rd floor. This traditional house is used as a residence and center of government by the king and queen of the empire.
This building is arranged from 40 poles (5 front poles to 8 rows back). The main material of this building is wood without the use of nails so that the foundation uses natural stone as a base for supporting poles. The motifs of these 3 traditional houses consist of various flora and fauna. The following is an explanation, among others:
Various types of flora motifs used in decoration in this traditional house, among others:
- Nanasi, pineapple-shaped decorations placed at the ends of the roof of the front and back of the house as a symbol of tenacity and prosperity. The use of pineapple itself symbolizes wherever the Butonese are in various interests, must be resilient in facing all natural challenges.
- Bosu-bosu, a type of fruit that resembles pomegranates and this motif is placed on the roof of the house under the roof with a symbol that will safety, determination and happiness.
- Ake, shaped like a patra (leaf) which symbolizes perfection. This motif also exists in the Malige traditional house building which symbolizes the union of the Sultan as a human being with Khalik as God or ruler. The symbol is derived from the teachings of Sufism Wahdatul Wujud.
- Kambang, a type of flower in the form of a lotus petal or the sun as a symbol of purity. With a shape like the sun, the Butonese call it the symbol of Suryanullah (Allah's Light) which is described as progress or development from the Majapahit period to the Islamic period.
- Fauna Motif
The most dominant and prominent fauna motif is the dragon motif placed on the dragon motif placed on ridge of the house roof. This motif symbolizes power and government. In addition, this motif is installed on the front and back doors so that the occupants of the house are protected from all kinds of dangers, especially evil winds.
Those are some brief explanations of the traditional houses of Southeast Sulawesi, where there are 3 traditional houses that are able to present how the culture of home construction there is in addition influenced by the belief system also the cultural system that is there. What needs to be ensured is that by knowing the ins and outs of the traditional house of Southeast Sulawesi it is hoped that the readers can understand and understand about it.