Definition of Marine Ecosystems
Marine ecosystems are one of the types of aquatic ecosystems that have dominated by a value at salt concentration whose levels are quite high, on a fairly wide surface.
One proof is that when we enter into the area of sea water and then taste a little water then we will feel a fairly salty taste. The uniqueness of this marine ecosystem is that it can only be inhabited or inhabited by marine life creatures alone.
As with animals that have one cell, mammals, invertebrates, and various types of plants that are in the sea, such as seaweed plants and coral reefs . Apart from that there are still some special characteristics of the marine ecosystem, among others, namely:
- The first special characteristics of the marine ecosystem have different temperature variations, this difference can be felt between the sea surface and the inner part of the water sea or depth in seawater.
- The second special feature is that the marine ecosystem has high levels of soluble salts in seawater and salinity and salinity levels, even if the seawater is getting closer to the equator, the level of atmosphere will be higher
- The third special feature is that the marine ecosystem is not too affected by weather conditions and climate.
- The fourth special feature is that all sea water is greatly affected by salt or NaCl, which reaches 75%.  In general there are several examples found in marine ecosystems. The following are some examples of those in the marine ecosystem:
1. Coral Reefs
Coral reefs are ecosystems of plant species that are in shallow seas. These coral reefs are included in plants, so that coral reefs can photosynthesize to produce food.
Fish that live around coral reefs can vary, due to the symbiotic relationship of methodism or the reciprocal relationship between several coral reef plants and fish.
2. Estuary Ecosystem
Estuary ecosystem is an ecosystem which is a meeting place for sea and fresh water. In this marine ecosystem, plants that are often found in the estuary ecosystem are plant species called mangrove trees.
Besides plants there are also animals that can be found in the estuary ecosystem, there are several species of crabs, or monkeys that live around beach.
3. Deep Sea Ecosystems
Deep sea ecosystems are ecosystems located at depths that are more than 2000 m at sea level. As a result, too much in the sun does not illuminate into the deep sea ecosystem, so the water temperature at this depth reaches 5 degrees Celsius.
In these deep-sea ecosystems only certain creatures can live, creatures that can survive normally creatures that are able to adapt to extremely extreme temperatures.
Other than that, animals that live in deep marine ecosystems are generally animals that like to eat carcasses or are called carnivorous animals.
One of the animals known living and living at that depth are giant sized squid and very large sharks, namely the Megoladon shark .
4. Coastal Ecosystems
Coastal ecosystems are areas where the sea is located. The beach is located in the closest part of the sea to the land.
So that the coastal ecosystem is included in the marine ecosystem, because than that in living creatures that live on the coast, they can also live in seawater such as shellfish, hermit crabs , sea urchins and crabs.
Marine Ecosystem Components
There are 2 components in the marine ecosystem components, namely abiotic and biotic components. The following is an explanation of the abiotic and biotic components:
1. Abiotic Components
The abiotic component is a condition between physical and chemical. Here's the explanation:
The main factor in the formation of this ecosystem is water. Water is the most important component of the sea (95%) and the rest is mineral salt.
The main source of light for life in the sea is the sun. However, the sun cannot penetrate to illuminate the depth of the sea. That way, even the deepest sea area will not get the slightest sunlight. Other than that, light also determines the temperature in the ocean area.
Too striking difference between land ecosystems and ocean ecosystems is temperature. This is often influenced by differences in the depth of the sea. That way, in the sea has a temperature which of course will vary depending on the depth.
d. Oxygen levels
Unlike the land life where oxygen can be inhaled freely, oxygen in the waters of oxygen has dissolved with water particles. That way, oxygen levels can disrupt the respiratory system found in animals that live in it.
e. Salt / mineral content
Mineral content found in seawater is higher than in fresh water. Seawater has many of the most important mineral properties for organisms that live in it.
One of the minerals contained in seawater is salt (NaCl). Levels of salt in sea water that is very high will affect the organisms that live in it.
On the sea floor is land that has been submerged by sea water. The depth of the sea can be determined from the seabed that has been found. This depth makes the form of zoning differentiated by sea based on its depth:
- Neritik zone is a sea area that reaches 200 M
- Litoral zone, sea area borders on land
- Abisal zone is a sea area exceeding 2000 M
- Batial zones are sea areas with depths between 200 M and 2000 M
2. Biotic components
In the biotic component there are various species of living things that are in the ecosystem which in each creature has its own functions and duties within the area. Namely:
Consumer groups in marine ecosystems are very diverse. Starting from veterbrata animals to invertebrate animals. The biological wealth in the sea is very high. Compared to land, the number of organisms in the sea is more abundant and varied.
The producer group has become the beginning of the food chain in the sea is a multicellular algae group and ellellular algae.
Producer activities in the sea are usually the same as producers on land that produce glucose or organic compounds together and produce oxygen from a photosynthetic reaction.
Decomposers often obtained on the sea are made up of groups of bacteria and protists. Decomposers are very important for activity in the sea, besides mixing dead organisms, decomposers are key eyes of a food chain formed in the oceans (in the most seas in the absence of producers)
That is some explanation of the understanding of marine ecosystems and examples and components in the marine ecosystem, Hopefully the article about can be a guide or reference in the science that you are looking for. Thank you and good luck!
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