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Objectives, Elements & Types [LENGKAP]

Definition of Negotiation Texts

Negotiating texts are a form of social interaction with the aim of obtaining agreement between parties who have different interests.

According to KBBI negotiations are a process of bargaining bargaining using negotiating methods to be able to give or receive to obtain mutual agreement between one party and another.

Both parties who have negotiated have the right to an agreed outcome. The final outcome of negotiations must have the agreement of all parties involved so that all parties can agree on the final outcome of the collective agreement.

Objectives of Negotiation

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The purpose of the negotiating text is to choose a middle ground with an agreement together so that each other can be beneficial in a problem. So that, between one party and the other party will not feel disadvantaged.

What is the priority in negotiating is the common interest and none of the parties that prioritize themselves. In negotiating texts there is also a function as a means in activities between buying and selling or in resolving misunderstandings.

In negotiating also has a purpose in terms of doing business. The objectives of negotiations in terms of doing business are as follows:

  • In order to reach an agreement that has the same perception, can understand and accept each other.
  • In order to achieve a solution and a solution to a problem by confronting it together.
  • the achievement of conditions that interdependence in the absence of those who have been harmed.

Elements of the Negotiation Text

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In the negotiating text there are several elements. These elements are among others, as follows:

1. There are proposals and offers

The first element in the negotiating text is the existence of a proposal and also an offer when negotiating. So, among parties can submit an item or service to the second party, complete with its description. Furthermore, a process of bidding and bargaining can be carried out between the two parties.

2. Presence of participant

The second element in the negotiating text is the presence of participants, namely those who have negotiated . Most consist of both parties can carry out a request process, bidding process, as well as solving a problem / dispute through negotiation. Participants are commonly referred to as negotiators.

3. Disagreement means no negotiation

The third element in the negotiating text is when there is disagreement, there will be no negotiation. Because, this can violate the objectives and final results of a negotiation, namely an agreement.

4. Differences in interests of both parties

The fourth element in the negotiating text is that there is a difference in interests between the two parties participating in the negotiation. For example, the first party has an interest in recommending an item or service on the second party. However, the second party also has the interest to be able to receive an item or service.

5. Approval or agreement

The last element in the negotiating text is an agreement or an agreement from both parties. In this element all become a goal or end result that can be obtained from negotiating, namely reaching a mutual agreement. After the delivery and bargaining process was completed, the agreement between the two parties could be made together.

Types of Negotiated Texts

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Different types of negotiating texts based on profit and loss, the situation and also the number of negotiations. The following explanation can be seen below.

1. Negotiations based on profit and loss

a. Negotiation avoids conflict (lose-lose)

In negotiations to avoid this conflict, both parties avoid conflicts that will arise. So that both parties cannot agree to resolve a problem.

b. Win-win negotiations

In this negotiation, negotiators will continue to strive to reach an agreement by combining each other's interests.

c. Lose-win negotiations

In the negotiation of accommodation, the negotiator gains very little or even loss. Whereas the opposing parties negotiating for a very large profit can achieve 100% profit. Usually this loss is due to the failure caused by the negotiator in negotiating to get no profit.

d. Win-lose negotiations

In negotiating this domination the negotiator gets a big profit from the agreement that has been reached. Whereas on the other side the negotiations only get fewer benefits.

2. Situation based negotiations

a. Formal negotiations

These formal negotiations occur in more formal situations. The characteristics of formal negotiations are the existence of a legal agreement in the eyes of the law. Therefore every violation of an agreed agreement will become a legal case. For example, negotiations between two companies.

b. Non-formal or informal negotiations

In non-formal or informal negotiations can occur anytime, anywhere, and to anyone. Therefore non-formal or informal negotiations do not require special agreements.

3. Negotiations based on the number of negotiators

a. Negotiations with mediators

During negotiations with mediators, these negotiations were carried out on two negotiators or even more so as well as mediators. Usually negotiators submit to each other's arguments . On the mediator who is in charge of delivering the final decision of the negotiations.

For example in a hearing at the court office. On the plaintiff's side, the defendant is also the party that can negotiate. Meanwhile the judge only became a middle party.

b. Negotiations without mediators

In negotiations without intermediaries, these negotiations can be carried out on two negotiators or even more. Negotiations are carried out without parties as mediators, so a negotiation decision depends on the party who has negotiated. For example, the negotiation is negotiation between the manager's representative and the sponsor.

Those are some explanations regarding the meaning of the negotiating text and its objectives, elements and types in the negotiating text. Hopefully this article can be a guideline or reference in the science you are looking for.


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