Definition of Observation
In general, Definition of Observation is an activity or research activity and observation of an object carefully and directly at the specified research location, and record all information systematically about the symptoms or conditions being studied.
It can also be said that Observation is one method of data collection carried out by observing or researching carefully and directly in the field or location of the study to find out directly the situation or conditions that occur or to prove a truth from an observation or research design.
In addition to the above explanation of the notion of observation in general, there are also some experts who express their opinions regarding the notion of observation. The following are some expert opinions regarding the notion of observation, namely:
1. Prof. Dr. Ben Walgito
According to an expert named Prof. Dr. Bimo Walgito said that the notion of observation is a or a research that is carried out and carried out systematically and carried out intentionally by using the human senses, especially the eyes with events that can be directly captured when the time of the event takes place.
2. Prof. Heru
According to an expert named Prof. Heru, said that observation is an or an observation that shows a study or learning that is carried out and done intentionally, directed, structured, sequential, and in accordance with the objectives to be achieved in a study or observation where each incident and phenomenon is recorded. The results of the observations are explained in detail, precise, accurate, thorough, objective, and useful in accordance with the research and observations carried out.
3. Suharsimi Arikunto
According to an expert named Suharsimi Arikunto, argues that the notion of observation is an observation or research carried out directly on an object in the environment, either an ongoing event at that time or an ongoing event, such as various activities or activities of concern for an object by using sensory tools. The action is carried out intentionally or consciously and carried out in the order of
4. Margono (2007)
According to an expert named Margono, said that the technique used in observation is basically used to see and observe any changes in events and phenomena that exist in the social that grow and develop and later can be made a change for the assessment. The observaser can see certain objects of events and phenomena, so that they can separate the results that are needed with results that are not needed.
5. Nawawi and Martini
According to experts named Nawawi and Martini, suggested that observations are observations or research as well as recording in a continuous manner consisting of various elements that appear in an event and phenomena within the object of research. The results of the research and observations will be reported with a directed and systematic arrangement in accordance with applicable rules.
Every activity or activity carried out must have its own objectives. Likewise with observation. Observation activities must have goals to be achieved. The following are some of the objectives of observation, namely:
- To describe and describe an object and everything that has a relationship with the object under study through observation and research using sensory devices, especially the eye.
- To obtain and produce a conclusion about the object it has been researched and observed, in which the conclusions are arranged systematically and arranged in a relevant report and have benefits for further learning material.
- To obtain and produce information or information which can be shared with other parties compiled in the form of scientific or non-scientific work.
Characteristics of Observation
Besides having a purpose, observation also has several characteristics. Here are some characteristics of observation, namely:
1. Characteristics – General Characteristics of Report Observation Results
In writing the results of observations, must have some characteristics that must be in the report. The following are the general characteristics of the observation report, namely:
- All written in complete, structured and perfect.
- Writing is objective, global and universal.
- Objects to be studied and
- The results of the report are written based on the facts according to the results of observations and research that have been carried out.
- Information from the results of the report is the result of proven research.
- Information does not contain distorted suspicion or bias. or incorrect.
- Information has a connection between tiered relationships, namely the relationships between classes or subclasses in it.
- The author only reports and writes according to what he saw and observed based on the results of his analysis and observations.
2. Characteristics of Laxity in the Text of the Report on Observation Results
As for some linguistic characteristics that must be contained in the text of the report on observation. Here are some linguistic characteristics in the text of the observation report, namely:
- Using the words noun phrases or groups of nouns followed by the words of the type and the descriptor. For example, food in the kitchen (the word 'food' is a noun, while the word 'in the kitchen' is an explanatory or descriptive form of the word sebalum. So, the meaning of the phrase is all food in the kitchen).
- Using a few words – the word relational verb, for example, is, that is, that is, classified, consists of, called, including, is and so forth. The word relational verb is used to express devinition or understanding of certain terms or technical terms in a particular field. For example "Pencil is one of the stationery".
- Using several active verb words, namely words that have no additions such as eating, sleeping, drinking, etc.
- Using several conjunctions such as, additional conjunctions (and, as well as), differential conjunctions (different from), equality conjunctions (whereas, but, but, but, meanwhile, …), and optional conjunctions (or)
- Always use paragraphs as sentences main to compile words or main information, then followed by several details of aspects that will be reported in several paragraphs.
- Words used are scientific or technical words such as omnivorous, osteoporosis, degenerative, mutualism, etc.
Besides having a purpose, and characteristics, observation also has several structures which are parts of the builder in the text of the observation report so that it will be systematically arranged and directed. The following are some of the structures in the text of the observation report:
- A general definition which contains an opening. In the opening contains an understanding of something object to be studied.
- Definition of part which contains the main ideas of each paragraph or contains a detailed explanation of the object under study.
- Definition of benefits that contain the benefits of something studied and reported.  Cover which contains part of the final details of the object under study.
Types of Observation
Besides purpose, characteristics, and structure, observation also has several types. The following are some types of observations, namely:
1. Observation of Participation
Observation of participation is a type of observation carried out by the presence of observers who are directly involved and active in the objects observed and examined. And there is also a type of reverse observation of participant observation, namely non-participation observation. Non-participation observations are observations made without direct involvement by researchers as observers.
2. Systematic Observation
Systematic Observation or commonly called skeletal observation, namely observations that have been compiled and predetermined the frameworks of what will be studied. Within the framework have several factors that will be observed based on their categories.
3. Experimental Observation
Experimental observations are observations made on a situation or situation that has been prepared in advance in such a way as to examine and observe a particular object.
Thus our discussion this time regarding the notion of observation, its purpose, characteristics, structure, and also types of observation. Hopefully you can better understand and understand well what observation is, as well as its purpose, characteristics, structure and types. Hopefully this article can be useful. Thank you 🙂
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