Pantun is one of the old poem types that each verse consists of four rows that contain sampiran and contents.
The word "pantun" itself comes from the language Minangkabau is "panutun" which means "guide". Later, in the Javanese language, pantun is known as parikan, in Sundanese known as "paparikan" while in Batak language it is known as an umpire.
As for the understanding of pantun according to Indonesian Dictionary of Great Britain Each line usually consists of four rows (ababs), each row usually consists of four words, the first row and the second row usually for the focus (sampiran) only and the third and fourth rows are contents.
In order for you to better understand the meaning of the phonetics, you should take a good look at the meaning of some experts. Here below is the definition of pantun according to experts.
1. Surana (2010: 31)
According to Surana (2010: 31), pantun is a form of old poem consisting of four rows of rhyming lines (a-b-a-b). Where, the first and second rows are the sampiran or objective part which is generally a metaphor. Whereas the third and fourth rows are content or part of the subjective.
2. R.O. Winsted
According to R.O. Winsted, pantun is a pantun that is not merely a composition of a rhythmic and rhythmic phrase, but is a wonderful word series to illustrate a warmth of love, affection, and longing for his speakers.
3. Herman J Waluyo (2005: 32)
According to Herman J Waluyo, pantun is the original Malay poem that has long been rooted in the culture of society.
4. Edi and Farika (2008: 89)
According to Edi and Farika, pantun is a form of old poetry widely known in various languages in the archipelago where in Javanese language pantun is known as parikan, while in Sundanese it is known as patang.
] 5. Alisyahbana (2004: 1)
According to Alisyahbana, pantun is an old poem that is well known by the ancients or very well known in the old society. The pantun feature is that each bait consists of four rows where each row consists of 4-6 words or 8-12 syllables. The first and second lines are sampiran while the third and fourth lines are the contents.
Here are the functions of the pantun you need to know.
1. As a means of preserving the language in which the role is a guardian of the word function and the ability to keep the groove in mind.
2. Train someone to think first of a word meaning before speaking or speaking.
3. Take part in relationships where usually the ability to be socially rewarded socially.
4. Train an associative way of thinking where a word may have something to do with another word.
5. Demonstrate someone's speed in thinking and playing with words.
6. As an amplifier tool in message delivery.
7. As a guard and media of culture in order to introduce and safeguard the values of society. It is based on the philosophy of the pantun that is "Customized bouncing, abstinence bouncing" which states that the pantun is closely related to social values and not imagination alone.
Once you understand what a poem and its function is, then you need to know the characteristics of the pantun itself so you can distinguish it from other types of literary works. Here are the following features of pantun.
1. Each verse consists of four rows
The verse contains a set of words that is in one idea and usually has its own distinctive character based on the type of poem. In the pantun, each verse consists of four rows. In addition, the line of words on the poem is also known as "array".
2. Consists of 8-12 syllables in each row
Initially, pantun is usually not written, but only delivered verbally (phrased). Because of that, each row of pantun contains short, but compact words. Generally, each row in a circle consists of 8 – 12 syllables only.
3. Consisting of sampiran and contents
The interesting thing from pantun is not just the meaning or the content but also the metaphor in it as an introduction. The introduction can be a description of events or habits that occur in the society both poetic to jokes. This introduction is called a sampiran.
The sampling itself is in the first and second rows. Whereas, the content or meaning of the poem is in the third and fourth rows.
4. Rima a-b-a-b
Rima or poem is the similarity of the sound found in a poem. Pantun which include old poetry types are usually thick will be reconstructed. Where, the pantun has a recital that is a-b-a-b.
What does a-b-a-b mean? Rima a-b-a-b means sound similarity between the first and the third and the second and the fourth in the pantun.
In this section, I will describe the types of pantun based on the life cycle (age) and its contents. Here is the explanation below.
I. Kind of pantun based on life cycle (age)
1. Child pantun
Child pantun is one of the kind of pantun related to the life of a child whether it is a pleasure or a sorrow.
] Examples: Lunch vegetable lunch
With chillies  Pantun orang muda
Pantuk orang muda adalah salah satu jenis pantun yang berkaitan dengan kehidupan masa baik baik tentang pengenalan, romantis / romantis, perasaan, kebiasaan, dan yang
Example: To go together with
Buy souvenirs and dolls
Move the young souls
Working with the burning passion
3. Parents Pantun
Parents pantun is one of the kind of pantun related to old-life life about culture, religion
Examples: Playing marbles with puput
Marbles missing somewhere
Nasty faces also wrinkled
Signs are old
II. Kind of pantun based on its contents
1. Jokes pantun
Jokes pantun is one of the kind of pantun that tells funny and interesting things. The purpose of this pantun is to entertain the audience. For some things, this jokes are also used to convey packed satire in the form of jokes.
Examples: Sweet sat on the lips of the beach
See the girl, oh no two
Most relaxed youth
2. The pantun puzzles
Pantun puzzles are one of the kind of pantun that contains a puzzle that usually gives the listener an opportunity to answer the puzzle in it.
Example: Trick to buy later
For clothes, I went down to the rice field
Who was the wise master wizard
What was the beast under?
3. Pantun Advice
Pantun Advice is one of the kind of pantun that contains advice or appeal with the aim of educating giving instruction, teaching morals or ethics and others.
Example: in the palace
Always charming in the eyes of the king
Strive to achieve ambitions
In order to bring the country's name
Example: The smell of fragrant rose roses
Cited in the morning
Framed rays of flowers 
The figurative pantun is one of the jneis pantun that contains a metaphor for the purpose of expressing something implicitly. ranum
Bak angel heaven andini
5. Loving mercy
Loving love is one of the kind of phobia related to love and affection. This poem is usually popular among Malay youths in order to convey their feelings to loved ones or loved ones.
Examples: Clearly the widower of the widower
Because his love has no hope
No mom's biased face
Until hungry no longer feels
6. Religious pantun
Religious pantun is one of the kind of pantun that contains things related to humanity with his creator. The purpose of this pantun is similar to that of the advice that is to convey the moral message and direction to listeners or readers. The main point of this religious pantun is its specific characteristic because of the particular values and principles of religion.
Example: Go to the celebration of the joke
The charm of the flower of the mayang
If the heart is not calm
Well, hopefully the discussion on the understanding of the pantun and the functions, characteristics, and types of pantun as described above are beneficial. Thank you!
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