What is meant by Optical Fiber? Fiber optic is one type of cable that is made with glass or fine plastic. Optical fiber can be used for transmission media, because it can transmit a light signal coming from one place to another at high speed.
Optical fiber developed in the 1960s and made of glass in the form of glass. In this fiber can generate light sources. The fastest access speed is needed by users to access the internet . This is the background of the presence of fiber optic cable, in an instant it can draw attention to the existing community.
Optical fiber or commonly referred to as optical fiber has become the most popular component in the telecommunications world, this is because it has speed of access. How is the working principle of optical fiber? Well below is one of the working principles of this type of optical fiber. In fact, you will also know about the types of optical fibers. Following discussion:
Optical Fiber Work Principle
There are many cables transmitting using an electric current, but optical fiber has used an electric current that can be converted to electricity. Thus this will not be disturbed, because of an electromagnetic wave. Optical fibers can use glass fibers for an arrangement material.
That way it will get a reflection or reflection of the total high light from a mirror that will make the data transmit faster with infinite distance. This reflection is obtained by passing light that is running on glass fibers at the lowest angle.
In addition to the work process will be more efficient in the reflection of light by affecting the purity of optical fiber material. Thus this will make the material more pure from glass that will be used in the absorption of less light from optical fiber.
If we look at the discussion of optical fiber, we can get 3 working principles from optical fiber. Well below are the 3 working principles of optical fiber, just refer to the review below.
- The initial signal or source in the form of an electrical signal on the transmitter will be changed by a diode / laser diode (optoelectronic transducer) until it becomes an electrical signal again.  Light waves which will then be transmitted through an optical fiber cable to the receiver or receiver at the other end of the optical fiber.
- In a receiver or receiver where the optical signal will be converted by a photo diode (optoelectronic transducer) until it becomes an electrical signal
On the way an optical signal coming from the transmitter will go to the receiver until there is a light attenuation along the optical cable, connectors and connections of a cable in the device. Therefore, if the transmission distance is far away, it is marked that several repeaters will function to strengthen the light waves that will experience attenuation along the way.
Types of Optical Fiber
There are two different types of optical fiber, here are two different types:
- Single Mode Fiber (SMF)
Single mode optical fiber has a core with a small size and has only a light path. In addition SMF also has a greater capacity when transmitting information because it can maintain the accuracy of the amount of light so that the distance will be greater. It does not even indicate the spread of light carried out by various modes. SMF fiber attenuation will be lower when competed with MMF. The disadvantage of this SMF is that the core diameter is too small so that making the connection of light to the core will be more complicated, complicated construction and more expensive costs.
- Multi Mode Fiber (MMF)
Multi mode optical fiber has a core diameter with a refractive index greater than single mode. This also allows a lot of light to pass through. The size of the multi-mode cable cores around 50 to 100 micrometers. In general, the size of NA in multi mode cable is around 0.20 to 0.29 NA (Numerical Aperture). Where this is a measure that has the ability to capture a light. Even this can also be defined as an acceptance cone that comes from optical fibers. Types of multi-mode fiber (MMF) are divided into two types, namely step index and gradded index.
Refers to the discussion above where optical fiber has the function to connect a computer on an existing network on the computer. In general, optical fiber has advantages and disadvantages, the following below are advantages.
- Having a speed with a more robust transmission, this is because it provides a capacity that reaches 1 GB / sec.
- Can transmit a data that adjusts to a sufficient distance far away.
- Has a more flexible and very small size.
- It is not easy to cause a short circuit which causes a fire, because optical fiber does not have electricity.
- Rust resistant, because the material comes from plastic and glass.
Indeed if we look at the advantages about optical fiber is very interesting, but still it has disadvantages. As shown below.
- Installation costs with higher maintenance, compared to other cables.
- Requires a stronger light source.
- Cables must be installed in curved paths, maximizing speed and smoothness in the transmission of light.
Although it has more attractive or better advantages, then you have to pay a higher price. That is why if this one type of cable can not be used at random. Therefore, you must consider first, so you will not feel sorry. Hopefully this article about the working principle of optical fiber is useful and easy to understand!