Computers are devices that we often use in daily activities. There are so many uses and benefits provided by the computer. Because by using it, we can quickly do a job such as school work, office, etc.
Therefore the presence of a computer is very meaningful to human life and can support human activities in their daily lives. And it is undeniable that human life today is very dependent on computers.
Digital devices such as computers have a very long history. And computer history is categorized into a number of generations. The number of generations computer development is as much as 5 generations. This article will explain the fourth generation of computers. The following explanation:
Fourth Generation Computers
If in the previous generation computers were very large, then in computers in this fourth generation computers already had smaller shapes.
When compared with the first generation of computers, it is clear the difference between the two computers of this generation. Because the first generation of computers using a vacuum tube as one of its main components.
And after researching, it turns out that this vacuum tube has shortcomings from all aspects of computer manufacturing. Therefore, researchers and scientists are competing to research in making computers that are effective and also efficient. Until the fourth generation of computers, computers have used microprocessor technology . The following is the history of computers in the fourth generation:
1. History of Fourth Generation Computers
Did you know that now we have used computers with the fourth generation? Yes, right now we are using a fourth generation computer. Where in this generation the computer has been made using the main components or basic components that have the name of the microprocessor.
This microprocessor is shaped like a chip, and that microprocessor chip has hundreds or even thousands of transistors in it and even various other trace elements. Which elements and transistors are already connected to each other and have become a unity.
The most influential company for the development of this Chip Microprocessor is the Intel company. Because the Inter company has succeeded in creating Intel 4004 chips. Which chip is the first step of computer development from year to year.
Intel has also succeeded in replacing computer components that initially had very large sizes until now the size of the computer has become very small and its use has been very more effective and also efficient. And in 1971, a company named IBM had created a computer that was intentionally designed in such a way for people in a special home environment.
While the Apple company had released and also published its first computer named Macinthos. in 1984. Macinthos is also an operating system to be able to operate from a computer device.
Not only that, the development of this computer will continue to the next year. Which will be born an idea to be able to create a computer network, and then be able to lead to the creation of the internet which at this time we have enjoyed its services.
2. Development of Fourth Generation Computers
On computers in the fourth generation there was a lot of rapid progress, which has been found and created by a mouse, the creation of Graphical User Interface (GUI) up to a computer that we can carry everywhere easily which is commonly called a laptop. In 1970 3 developments have also emerged which are usually always considered a computer in this fourth generation.
The first is, the use of LSI (Large Scale Integration) or commonly referred to as Bipolar Large Scale Integration . LSI is a compaction group of thousands of IC which can be put together on an IC chip that has a designation that is Chip .
The mention or term of this chip is often used when showing a plate that is has a rectangular shape that can contain an integrated series on the IC. The LSI can then be further developed to be bigger namely as VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) . VLSI can accommodate a number of ICs whose contents are more or less than tens and even up to hundreds of thousands of ICs.
Finally, it has been developed to be able to become a microcomputer which already uses a semi-conductor and also a microprocessor which has the form of chips to be able is used as an internal computer memory for temporary use. And whereas those already used in the previous generation could only use magnetic core storage.
And in 1972, the company had created a 4-bit microcomputer, which had used a processot chip named 4004 which had 230 contents transistors and can also run at 108 KHz, and can execute up to 60,000 operations per second.
Then continue until 1972, which Intel company has released 8008 that can process 8 bits of information with just just one time. Furthermore, this will be able to continue using the 8080 microprocessor that was made in 1974. The 8080 microprocessor has a general goal of first being successfully developed.
If previously the 4004 and 8008 processors were designed to be designed for the needs of specific applications, and also 8080 processors that have performance and capabilities that are very much faster and can have a richer set of instructions and can be for more address problems The computers in the fourth generation have a monitor display that still uses one color that is green.
Computers in this fourth generation are Apple II, IBM 370, Vision Calc, Apple I PDP-11 and computers that already use Intel 8080 processors that use OS control program for microprocessors . And the computer that uses the programming language is Microsoft Basic.
2. Characteristics of Fourth Generation Computers
The characteristics of computers in this generation are:
- Can use LSI (Large Scale Integration) .
- Has been developed into a microcomputer that has used a semiconductor and also a micro processor which has the form of a chip for memory on the computer.
Thus the article discusses the history of fourth generation computers and their characteristics. Hopefully this article can be useful for you and broaden your horizons.