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History, Functions, Symbols & Types of Music [LENGKAP]

Understanding of Music

Simply put, music is a result of processing melodies, sounds, rhythms, vocals, harmony, and also tempo. Music can be produced by several musical instruments such as violins, guitars, drums, pianos, keyboards and others.

As for, the understanding of music in general is sound that has been arranged in such a way that it contains rhythm, song, tone and harmony especially from sounds that come from instruments that can produce rhythms (musical instruments).

Understanding Music According to Experts

Once you understand the meaning of music in general, you also need to know some understanding of music according to experts so you can understand the understanding of music better. Here below are some musical insights according to experts.

1. Shcopenhauer

 Understanding of Music - Schopenhauer

According to Shcopenhauer, a German philosopher, the art of music is a melody whose poem is in the form of the universe.

2. Aristotle

According to Aristotle, music is the outpouring of the ability of drawing power that comes from the feeling movement in a series of tones (nelodi) that have rhythms.

3. Adjie Esa Poetra

According to Adjie Esa Poetra, the art of music is a regular sound, not only normative moral but also acknowledged in harmony with the calculations of physicists.

4. David Ewen

According to David Ewen, music art is a science and art of rhythmic combinations and some vocal or instrumental tones that include melody and harmony as expressions of things that want to be expressed more emotionally.

5. Reed and Sidnell

According to Reed and Sidnell, music art is a branch of art in the form of sound which contains elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and timbre.

6. Soeharto

According to Suharto, music is an expression of ideas through sound whose basic elements are melody, rhythm, and harmony with the supporting elements in the form of the nature and color of sound.

7. Merriam

According to Merriam, music is a symbol of things related to people's ideas and behavior.

8. Jamalus

According to Jamalus (1988), music is a result of art works in the form of songs or compositions that express the thoughts and feelings of the creator through the main elements of music, namely rhythm, melody, harmony , and the composition and shape of the song and expression as a whole.

9. Sylado

According to Sylado, music is a living form of a collection of illusions and sounds. More precisely, he revealed that music and soulful tones can move the hearts of the connoisseur.

Music History

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Music was known long before medieval times in which the Bible is told in ancient times music has been used to praise God known as Church Music. The development of music stems from the habits and culture of the ancient people who used music for ceremonies or rituals.

Based on a number of existing, music began to develop among Jews, Romans, Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Asians, Persians, Indians and Greeks. Among others, music in the Greek era was the best and most famous. Music then spread throughout Europe and continued to develop. Then, instrumental music emerged that developed rapidly after there were improvements to musical instruments such as violins and cello.

The development of music can be divided into 6 epochs / era, namely:

  1. Medieval / Middle Ages Music (400-1400an) [19659031] Music of the Renaissance Age (1400 – 1600s)
  2. Baroque / Racoco Era Music (1600 – 1700s)
  3. Classical Era Music (1700 – 1810an)
  4. Romantic Era Music
  5. Modern / Contemporary Era Music (1900 -2000an)

Following below is an explanation of each division of zama in the development of music in the world.

I. Medieval / Middle Ages (400 – 1400s)

This era of music is thought to end around the year 1400s, while medieval times began in the days of the end of the Roman kingdom around the 400s. In medieval times, developing music was greatly influenced by the power of the church (Roman Catholic church).

Later, the developing notation was musical repertoire [1945911]. Musical repertoire is a collection of musical pieces played either individually, ensemble or played with instruments and choirs.

As for, this characteristic of the Middle Ages is the use of monoponic (tungal) and homorhythmic (tungal rhythms) melodies. Only certain parties can write music scores because the price of leather paper is very expensive. During this time, there were also many music schools that stood like polyphony schools that developed in Europe, Notre Dame School. Then, a very well-known composer at this time included Leonin, Perotin, Adam de St. Victor, W. de Wycombe, and Pierre de la Croix Petrus de Cruce.

II. Era Music Renaissance (1400 – 1600)

In French, Renaissance means "rebirth". The music that developed during this period was music, romance and happiness. Meanwhile, church music has suffered a setback. Instrumental music has been known at this time because of the emergence of Piano musical instruments and organs.

Like in the city of Florance, Italy, opera art has developed which is the art of bringing music with vocals accompanied by musical instruments. In addition, music chords are also more flexible and easily adapted to the style of musicians at that time. Adapu, a prominent figure in the Renaissance musicians including Leonel Power, Giles Binchois, John Durstable, and Guillaume Dufay.

III. Baroque / Racoco Era Music (1600-1700an)

Baroque era music is known as the peak of the glory of music in Europe. In this era, the type of instrument music is more commonly known. The composers did a lot of improvisation into their music so that the compositions of the music produced were more diverse both in terms of melody, rhythm and harmony.

In this era, there was a Rococo music genre. What's the difference between Baroque and Rococo music? Baroque music uses Ornamentik that allows composers to provide spontaneous inprocessation in their musical works, while Rococo music uses decorative compositions that are decorative but not too complex.

As for the famous composers of this period, Claudio Monteverdi, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Arcangelo Corelli, and Johann Sebastian Bach.

IV. Classical Era Music (1700 – 1810an)

Music in the Classical era played more in harmony. Some of the works in this era cannot be compared to other works of the past such as Fifth Symphony (by Beethoven). Classical era music is between the baraque era and the romantic era.

As for, the hallmark of classical era music is homophonic (the melody is above the accompaniment of chords), lighter, easier, a much clearer texture, and the melody is shorter than before (Baroque era). Meanwhile, composers who were famous in this era include Franz Schubert, Carl Maria von Weber, and John Field, Mozart and L Van Beethoven

V. Romantic Era Music (1810 – 1900an)

Music works and musical compositions in this era were more expressive with feelings of emotion that were stronger and deeper than the previous era.

Simply put, composers in the romantic era had their own new way to make music is far more interesting than the previous era. The famous composers of this era include Beethoven, Richard Wagner, French bizet, verismo, Mikhail Glinka (Russia)

VI. Music Era Modern / Contemporary (1900 – 2000s)

In the modern era, music experienced many changes such as the emergence of various types of new musical instruments and also various musical genres. With the help of technological tools such as radio and television music has turned into a product of mass culture.

As for composers who are well known in this era, among them are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven. Luigi Boccherini, Muzio Clementi, Carl Phillipp Emanuel Bach, Franz Schubert, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Carl Maria von Webber, and Luigi Cherubini.

Musical Functions

Below are some musical functions.

1. Entertainment Facilities

 music for entertainment - Understanding of Music According to Experts

Today, music is generally used as a means of entertainment both to enliven an event or only to be heard personally. Music is also often used to calm the soul or relaxation.

2. Disclosure of Emotions

Song writers generally vent their emotions into a music as a representation of their current feelings. If the mood of the songwriter is sad or upset, the music that they tend to produce contains sadness or anxiety.

3. Communication Facilities

Music is also used as a means of communication as a sign for something, for example in an event, if A music is played then the next agenda is agenda A.

4. Business Facilities

 music album

Music produced can also make money by being marketed as a product to the public. As we know, the music industry is currently one of the most profitable creative industries. One example of the [1945922] country with a very famous music industry was South Korea.

5. Accompaniment of Traditional Ceremony

 traditional ceremony

Traditional ceremonies are usually accompanied by music and regional musical instruments representing the local cultural peculiarities. With the existence of music, traditional ceremonies became more interesting and alive.

6. Accompaniment of Dance

 Saman dance

Aside from accompanying traditional ceremonies, music was also used to accompany dances. The dance movements performed are certainly in tune with the music played.

7. Accompaniment Performances

[1945904] musical drama [1945955]

We certainly often see drama or musical-desired performances to create a more lively and expressive atmosphere so as to attract visitors' attention and make the show more memorable.

8. Educational Facilities

 Music as an Educational Facility

Aside from the above benefits, music was also used in the educational field such as to teach children to know a knowledge such as flower names, giving advice through music, and others.

Main Elements of Music

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Following below elements contained in music that you need to know. [19659088] 1. Melody

This melody will be an attraction in music. Melody is a unity of phrases composed of regular, high-order, low-order tones.

2. Rhythm

Simply put, rhythm is a decisive beat in music. Rhythm is a change in the length of a short, high low, and soft soft tone or sound in a series of music.

3. Birama

Birama is a part / segment of a line of melody that shows how many beats in that section. For example, in birama ¾ meaning is the notes for each segment of birama worth 3 beats, each beat is worth ¼.

A bar is generally limited by a line of bars. Meanwhile, the number of even denominators is referred to as the banair bar, while the bar whose odd number is called the birama tenair.

4. Harmony

Harmony is a set of tones which, if played together, will create a sound that is harmonious and pleasant to hear.

5. Tempo

Tempo is a measure of song speed. Where, the faster a song is played, the greater the tempo value of the song. Here are 8 tempo categories:

  • Largo (Slow Once)
  • Lento (Slower)
  • Adagio (Slow)
  • Andante (Medium)
  • Moderato (Moderately Fast)
  • Allegro (Fast )
  • Vivace (Faster)
  • Presto (Very Fast).

6. Tone Ladder

Scales are a series of tones arranged in a multilevel or starting from one of the basic tones to the octave like do, re, mi, fa, so, la, si and do.

There are 2 types scales are diatonic and pentatonic. Meanwhile, diatonic scales are composed of 7 pieces with 2 distances (1/2 and 1) while the pentatonic is composed of 5 notes with a certain distance.

7. Dynamics

Dynamics is a sign to play tones with soft or loud volume (loud). Dynamics are usually used to show feelings in a composition such as cheerful, sad, flat, or aggressive.

8. Timbre

Timbre is the quality or color of sound that is greatly influenced by the source of sound and the way it vibrates. You need to know that, timbre produced from a wind instrument will produce a different sound from a stringed instrument, even though it is played in the same tone.

9. Expressions

Expressions are expressions of feelings and thoughts which include the nuances of tempo, dynamic, tone and style of the main musical elements.

Music Symbols

 Music Symbols

In this section , I will explain the symbol of music notation on scores. Usually, scores are more often used to write musical notations on the piano. The following below is a symbol of musical notation in scores.

1. Paranada Line

The paranada line is a line that runs from left to right which consists of 5 lines and also 4 spaces. Well, this is the space and space that will be used as a place to write notes. Where, the higher the line the higher the tone will be.

2. Bar Line

There are 2 types of bar lines namely single bar lines and double bar lines (double bar) . Meanwhile, g a single bar is used to limit the number of notes based on the number of beats or bars. Meanwhile, the double bar line (double bar) is usually written at the end of a musical notation.

3. Key (Symbol Notations)

A key sign is a sign that indicates the range of notes played and is usually written at the beginning or left of the score. Examples are key G (treble) and key F (bass).

4. Time signature [Time Signature]

Signs of time are usually written in the form of fractions such as 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, and others. This sign is usually located after the key sign.

How to read the sign for example for a sign of 2/4, meaning it is playing 2 beats in each bar where each beat has a value of 1/4 not. Simply put, number 2 is the number of beats while number 4 is the value of the notes played.

5. Note

Note consists of several ranges, intervals, or durations such as note 1 (full) worth 4 tones, note 1/2, note 1/4, note 1/8, and other multiples. This note is used to write tones.

6. Break (Rest Symbol)

Resting signs are also referred to as pauses. The duration possessed by the break is the same as the note above such as full rest / 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and other multiples.

7. Accidental [19459909] (Kress and Mol)

There are 2 types of signs accidental namely kress and mol. The stress sign (#) is used to raise the pitch by half the tone while the mole sign (b) is used to decrease the pitch by half the tone.

8. Tie 1945 sign [1945919] (hyphen)

A tie sign is an arch-shaped sign used to show the relation of two notes.

9. Tempo Sign

Tempos are a sign used to indicate the level of speed in playing musical notation.

Types of Music

Well, apart from the explanation above, you also need to know what types music that exists today. The following are some of the types of music you need to know.

1. Rock

 Types of Music

Rock was one of the popular music originating from music rock and roll [1945-1919] in the United States in the 1950s. This rock music is influenced by jazz, blues, classical and others.

2. Pop (Popular)

 pop music

Pop was a type of music from popular music in the form of a modern form of rock and roll in the 1950s. This pop music is the most popular type of music.

3. RnB (Rhythm & Blues)


RnB [1945917] (Rhythm & Blues') is a type of music that is quite popular originating from African music -America in the 1940s. Where, in one band RnB usually consisted of pianists, one or two guitarists, vocalists, bass, drums, and also saxophone.

4. Blues

[1945968] blues music ” width=”600″ height=”326″/>

Blues are a type of music originating from African-Americans in the 19th century where the lyrics originally consisted of 1 line which was repeated 4 times.

5. Dangdut


Dangdut is a type of traditional Indonesian popular music that has Hindustani, Malay and Arabic elements. Dangdut has been very popular since the 1970s to the present.

6. Country

Country music ” width=”600″ height=”322″/>

Country is a type of mixed music originating from the southern United States and also the Appalachia Mountains. This country music has developed since the 1920s and is rooted in North American folk songs, kelt music, and gospel music.

7. Electronic

 electronic music

Electronic is a type of music that fully uses electronic technology where examples of musical instruments such as electric guitars, telharmonium and also hammond organs ].

8. Hip Hop

Hip hop ” width=”600″ height=”275″/>

Hip hop is a type of music consisting of rhythmic and stylish music in which rap and rhythmic vocals are usually present. In hip hop, reading song lyrics looks like reading in a normal way but with a certain rhythm.

9. Jazz

 jazz music

Jazz was a type of music originating from African-Americans in the late 19th century. Jazz music has a great influence from West African and European cultures.

10. Classical [1945903]

classical music ” width=”600″ height=”290″/>

Classical is a type of music rooted in the traditions of Western art, Christian music, and orchestral music that developed around the 9th century until the 21st century.

11. Reggae

 reggae music
Reggae was a type of music originating from Jamaica in the late 1960s. This type of music is influenced by American jazz and also RnB.

As for, one of the most recognizable elements of reggae music is the offbeat rhythm that comes from guitar or piano. Well, hopefully the discussion about understanding, history, functions, elements, symbols and types of music as explained above is useful. Thank you!

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