The word "drama" comes from the Greek word "draomai" which means acting, acting, and so on. In general, drama is a type of literary work that describes a life or story, character, and human behavior through movements and dialogues that are staged on stage in several rounds.
Performances of drama scripts are known as "theater". The story written in the drama manuscript has a variety of emotions and conflicts specifically created for theater performances.
This is so that the audience is fascinated and absorbs the emotions in the drama that is displayed. In order for the drama to run well it requires the ability to present a conflict or emotion as a whole.
After explaining the meaning of drama in general, I will now explain the meaning of drama according to experts. This is expected to help you understand the meaning of drama better. Following below are some notions of drama according to experts.
1. Ferdinand Brunetierre
According to Ferdinand Brunetierre, a drama gives birth to will through action or movement.
According to Moulton, drama is a life story that is described in the form of a movement or action (presented directly in action).
3. Balthazar Vallhagen
According to Balthazar Vallhagen, drama is an art that describes nature and human nature in motion.
4. Budianta et al (2002)
According to Budianta et al., Drama is a genre (type) of literature that shows physical appearance verbally every conversation or dialogue between leaders there.
5. Anne Civardi
According to Anne Civardi, drama is a story that is told through words and movements.
6. Team Matrix Media Literata
According to the Matrix Media Literata Team, drama is a narrative form that describes the life and nature of the human being through behavior or acting performed.
7. Seni Handayani
According to Seni Handayani, drama is a form of composition based on two branches of art, namely literary and performing arts so that the drama is divided into two, namely drama in the form of written texts and staged plays.
According to Wildan, drama is a composition based on several branches of art, so drama is divided into two, namely drama in the form of written texts and staged plays.
Function and Purpose of Drama
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What is the function and purpose of the drama? The following are the functions and purposes of the drama that you need to know.
Drama can be used as a means of entertainment for the general public. Comedy dramas can make the audience laugh and be entertained. Watching drama can be used as entertainment or solace to fill our free time.
2. Adding Knowledge and Insight
Besides being a means of entertainment, drama can also be used as a means of education. Because the drama generally tells about life or human stories, of course there are various moral values, knowledge, insights, and so on. We certainly often see drama that contains the values of life where we can apply these values in everyday life.
Not only are the values of life, drama also often convey information in the form of knowledge to the audience such as drama about history, nature, and others.
3. Delivering Aesthetic Values
In order for the drama to be performed to run maximally, the show needs to fulfill its aesthetic value. The beauty in drama art must be performed well from movement, dialogue, expression, arrangement, costume, and others. If the performance of the drama only looks flat, it will certainly be difficult to attract the interest of the audience and the message in the drama will not be conveyed properly.
4. Teaching Social Values
Because they generally tell stories about human life, many dramas convey social values such as how to live in a good society, how to respect others, build good relationships in society, and others
In the drama there are 4 structures namely:
1. Acts or Episodes
Acts or episodes are parts of a drama script in the form of a summary of a story or story that occurs in a place in a certain time sequence.
Scenes are part of a drama series that shows a change in events or stories played by characters in the drama. One scene shows a change or transition in one round which is marked by a change of character, place and time in a round.
Dialogue is a part of a drama script in the form of an interaction (conversation) between one character and another (monologue) in one round. It was this dialogue that would dominate drama and become a distinction between drama and other types of literary works .
Prologue is an introductory part of a drama to enter into a story that contains information from the writer, the player and the people involved in making a drama or a general description of the drama to be performed. The prologue was delivered by a narrator on the stage.
If the prologue is the opening, the epilogue is the closing part of a drama performance which contains conclusions (meaning and message) of the drama played and the description of all the actors in a drama making.
Characteristics of Drama
Differences in drama with other types of literature can be seen from its characteristics. Following below are the characteristics of drama.
This dialogue distinguishes between drama and other types of literature. Each drama certainly has a dialogue both dialogue between characters or monologues (dialogue of characters with themselves). The drama dialogue does not use quotation marks ("") because it does not use direct sentences. Writing the script using a colon (:) between the character's name and the contents of the dialog.
2. Having People / Actors
Drama is played by a number of figures, whether human, puppet or puppet. This figure will bring the drama to the audience.
Usually, a drama is performed on stage equipped with supporting attributes and properties to enliven the atmosphere and attract the interest of the audience.
4. Less than 3 hours
Drama can last for less than 3 hours.
5. There is a conflict
In a drama, of course story conflict is needed just like other literary works. Without conflict, drama does not become interesting. Conflict is tension or opposition in a drama.
6. There Are Audience
Shows are held to be presented in front of the audience with certain goals such as entertainment. The drama that was performed was of course always attended by the audience as the audience.
Drama was divided into several types based on the play, the delivery medium, and the script. The following is an explanation of the three.
Drama Types Based on Lakonan:
Tragedy is a drama that tells the sadness of the protagonist in the drama. Usually, the drama ends with a tragic story.
Opera is a drama whose dialogue takes the form of songs accompanied by music.
Comedy is a drama that shows funny events or plays (filled with solace). This drama usually ends with a happy story.
Tragekomedi is a drama that combines tragedy with comedy drama. There are sad stories as well as funny plays or funny events in one drama. Usually, funny plays are played by supporting roles in the drama.
Tablo is a drama that some people play by relying only on dialogues such as pantonym .
] 6. Farce
Farce is a drama that shows funny things through actors' actions such as slapstick but does not fully resemble slapstick.
The power of this drama lies in the events or behavior of its players. Usually, funny things appear on events such as accidents, suffering, and insults experienced by certain characters.
Melodrama is a drama whose dialogue and play is spoken with music or melody. Melodrama almost resembles an opera because it both uses musical accompaniment or melody.
Sendratari is a drama that delivers its messages through dance. In this drama there is also a dialogue from the characters, but the power of the message is very visible through the characters' dance scenes.
Colosal is a drama that usually tells stories of the ancients, war, or the birth of an era where there were many figures who did it.
Drama Types Based on Media Submission:
1. Stage Drama
Stage drama is a drama performed by players on stage. This drama has no repetition because it is done directly in front of the audience so that the players demanded must be able to play perfectly.
2. Television Drama
Television drama was a drama featured on television . This drama provides an opportunity for players to repeat the scene because it is not shown directly like a stage drama.
3. Radio Drama
Radio drama is a drama that can only be heard on the radio without being seen (only using voice media).
4. Film Drama
Film drama is a drama that almost resembles a television drama, except that the making is more spectacular than television dramas and is displayed on a big screen like a cinema. Before appearing on television, film dramas will be screened in theaters first.
5. Puppet Drama
Puppet drama is a drama in which puppets become actors of each scene.
6. Puppet Drama
Puppet drama is a drama that uses puppets as performers from each scene.
Drama Types Based on Manuscript:
1. Traditional Drama
Traditional drama is a drama that is performed without using a script (improvising). Technically, players will be given an overview of the story in general and then staged according to their improvised lakonan ability
2. Modern Drama
Modern drama is a drama that is performed using a script. Technically, the players will play according to the dialogue in the drama script. Even so, the players can also improvise at the time of the show but very little and only at certain events.
Okay, hopefully the discussion about the understanding of drama, function, purpose, structure, characteristics, and types of drama as explained above is useful. Thank you!
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