Etymologically, motivation comes from Latin "movere " which means to move. In addition, there are also those who say that motivation comes from English "motivation" which can be interpreted as "inner power" or "encouragement."
Thus, the notion of motivation is a the form of change that occurs in an individual due to the symptoms of feelings, soul and emotion so as to provide encouragement to do an action that becomes a need or goal to achieve, both positively and negatively.
In general, motivation can be obtained from within and through other people. With the existence of motivation, then a person will have the strength or energy to carry out certain actions without coercion.
Some experts express their opinions regarding the definition of motivation as follows.
Understanding motivation according to Weiner (quoted by Elliot et al.) Is an internal condition that arouses a person to take action, encourages individuals to achieve certain goals or makes individuals interested in doing certain activities.
According to Uno, the definition of motivation is defined as a form of encouragement internally and externally from within a person which is indicated by; passion and interest; encouragement and need; hopes and ideals; appreciation and respect.
3. Henry Simamora
According to Henry Simamora, motivation is a function that comes from a form of individual expectations that a particular effort will produce a level of performance which in turn will produce the desired rewards or results.
4. G. R. Terry
G. R. Terry states that motivation is a desire found in someone who stimulates him to take various actions.
5. Robbins and Judge
Understanding motivation according to Robbins and Judge is a process that explains the intensity, direction and perseverance of individuals to achieve their goals.
6. Edwin B. Flippo
Edwin B. Flippo said that motivation is a form of expertise in directing an employee or an organization to achieve success in work so that the objectives of the organization can be achieved.
7. Victor H. Vroom
According to Victor H. Vroom, the notion of motivation is a result of the results to be achieved or achieved by someone by estimating that what is done can lead to the desired results.
Djamarah defines motivation as a form of energy change from within a person that is characterized by the emergence of feeling  and preceded by a response to a goal.
Changes in one's energy are defined as a real activity in the form of physical activity. Someone who has a specific goal in his activity, then will have a strong motivation to achieve it with all efforts that can be done.
Function and Purpose of Motivation
Basically, the motivation function is as a driver or the attraction of an individual to take action with a high level of enthusiasm. In addition, there are several motivational functions that you need to know as follows:
1. Determining the Direction You Want to Achieve
Motivation can function as a director, meaning motivation can show the direction of activities carried out by an individual in accordance with the goals to be achieved. In this case, there are two types of directions that can be achieved, namely positive direction and negative direction.
2. Selecting Actions
Someone who is embedded in motivation in himself will make a certain effort to take action to achieve the expected results. Thus, motivation functions as a selector to help individuals dispose of actions that are not related to their goals.
3. Determining Fast or Slow Action
Motivation can also function as a promoter, which is a driving machine that gives individuals the power to take certain actions. Someone who is motivated will determine what efforts must be taken so that the goal is more quickly achieved.
According to Hasibuan, giving motivation to an individual will produce goals like the following
- Giving encouragement or enthusiasm to his subordinates
- Increasing productivity of an employee in work
- Maintain employee loyalty to stay in the company
- Improve employee discipline to reduce employee absenteeism
- Create a conducive working atmosphere and good working relationships between colleagues
- Make employees more creative and always participate in office activities
- Fostering a sense of responsibility for employees towards tasks received
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Basically, motivation is divided into two types according to disciplines psychology, namely intrinsic motivation k and extrinsic motivation.
1. Intrinsic Motivation
Definition of intrinsic motivation is a form of motivation that comes from within oneself to take action. In a sense, this motivation does not require stimulation or influence from others in achieving its goals.
Individuals who have this type of motivation tend to be active because the source of strength comes from itself. He will feel happy and satisfied to carry out an action without expecting any reward.
A simple example is learning. Most students assume that learning is a tedious act so it is not uncommon for them to be lazy in learning activities, whether at home or at school. However, for students who have motivation in themselves will make learning activities the foundation for achieving success in their lives.
2. Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation is the opposite of intrinsic motivation, namely the presence of encouragement that comes from the influence of others to achieve a goal that will benefit him. In the sense that individuals who have this motivation will become active because there are rewards that they receive.
For example, every employee who works in a company will compete to show his ability, so that the company can improve his career in the future.
There are 5 motivational theories that are often used and will be explained clearly below.
1. Maslow's Hierarchy Theory
Hierarchy theory was put forward by Abraham Maslow, a psychologist in 1943. In this theory it is said that the level of human life needs is based on 5 types, ranging from basic needs to the highest needs. The levels of hierarchy referred to are as follows
- Physiological Needs ( Physiological needs ) – The most basic human life needs, such as the need for food, drink, water, air, clothing, place stay and the need to survive.
- Security Needs ( Safety needs ) – Human life needs to obtain security from violence, both physically and psychologically . For example, pollution-free living environments, safety protection from hazards and threats in his life.
- Social Needs (1945,9009) 1945 Social Needs) – In accordance with human nature as social beings, who need other people in carrying out their lives. This need implies humans to have a sense of love and being loved.
- Need for Awards ( Esteem needs ) – Needs related to physiology, security and social. That need makes the person wish to be recognized by others, has a reputation and self-confidence and is valued by others.
- [Self-Actualization] – The highest need in human life according to Maslow, namely the human need to be able to fulfill his personal ambitions.
2. Theory ERG Alderfer
The ERG Alderfer theory or commonly known as the ERG is only proposed by Aldefer taken from the form E = Existence  which means the existence of needs, such as physiological and materialistic, R = Relatedness which states relations with other parties, and G = Growth which is interpreted as a growing need to achieve maximum self potential.
3. McClelland's Theory of Requirement
David McClelland is a psychologist who expresses his opinion on theory in motivation which is divided into 3 types of needs, namely performance needs (need for achievement ), affiliate needs ( need for affiliation ) and the need for power ( need for power ).
4. Motivation Theory Herzberg Hygiene
Herzberg's theory is often referred to as the theory of two different factors, namely the level of satisfaction and dissatisfaction in work or also called the theory of MH.
- Satisfaction works,  namely factors related to recognition, achievement, responsibility that gives positive satisfaction to employees.
- Dissatisfaction works namely factors related to the conditions of the work environment, relationships between individuals, work security and salary that provide dissatisfaction with employees.
5. Theory Harapan Vroom
Victor Vroom who is a professor in Canada revealed his motivation theory in his book " Work and Motivation " which reads that someone would take an action because of expecting results or rewards. The concept of Vroom's theory of hope is as follows:
- Expectancy ( Expectancy ) namely the level of one's belief that a business will produce a certain performance.
- Instrumentally , namely the level of confidence of a person that a performance performed can get certain results.
- Valence ( Valence ) which is related to positive and negative values of the results achieved.  That's a complete explanation of the notion of motivation in general and according to experts, its functions and objectives, types and theories in motivation. Hopefully the above article provides benefits and adds to your insight, especially in motivation.
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