Definition of Negotiation
Surely you have seen people negotiate to reach an agreement. Negotiation itself is a form of social interaction between several people or groups of people where this interaction aims to reach mutual agreement. So that the results of these negotiations will be used together and neither party feels disadvantaged.
The word negotiation if translated according to etymology will be divided into two words in English. Namely "to be negotiating" and "to negotiate" which means to bargain, negotiate and discuss. Then the two English words above were reduced to one word namely "negotiation" which means to negotiate something or explain the activity of talking with people or other parties so that an agreement was reached.
Usually these negotiations are carried out in a company with fellow colleagues business if negotiations are held formally. But negotiations can also be held informally between family and colleagues in school. Whatever type of negotiation, both formal and informal, but certainly one goal is to achieve common goals with all parties to get the same benefits.
Understanding Negotiations According to Experts
Understanding this negotiation also did not escape the observations of experts. Where there are 6 experts who come to express their opinions on the meaning of negotiations.
The involvement of experts in giving opinions about negotiations is also due to the importance of negotiations to reach a joint decision. The understanding of negotiations according to experts, namely:
1. Jackman (2005)
According to Jackman, negotiation is a process carried out by two or more people. Where the negotiators originally had different thoughts. However, after negotiations, these different thoughts can be compared between each person or group of people.
2. Robbins (2003)
Whereas Robbins said that negotiation is an exchange process between individuals or groups regarding goods and services. Where the exchange of goods and services is also an effort to approve cooperation between individuals or groups.
3. Henry Kissinger (1969)
Negotiation according to Kissinger is a process of uniting the two conflicting parties. Where this conflict then subsided and was regulated in a clear regulation resulting from the negotiations of all parties earlier.
4. Linda L. Putnam
Linda L. Putnam said that if negotiation is a discussion process carried out by two or more people to reach a similar decision. Where this decision can be formed from the exchange of proposals and efforts to achieve a goal.
5. Suyud Margono
The definition of negotiation according to Suyud is a consensus process used by several people who are members of a group with the aim of reaching certain agreements.
6. The Big Indonesian Dictionary
While the meaning of negotiation in the Big Indonesian Dictionary is a bargaining process by way of negotiations. Where this process aims to reach a mutual agreement between one party (individual / group) and another party (group / individual).
Objectives of Negotiations
Negotiations carried out by inter individuals and between groups certainly have a purpose. Where the objectives of the negotiations are:
1. Reaching a mutual agreement
Usually the parties to a negotiation are those who have different opinions. Where with the existence of the negotiation process it is hoped that the objective will be to achieve a mutual agreement between the negotiating parties.
2. To solve the problem
The purpose of holding a negotiation is not only to reach mutual agreement. But negotiations can also be held because to reconcile conflicting parties. Usually with this negotiation process the opposing parties can make peace and find the right solution to answer the problems they face.
3. Aligning profits
There are many models of discussion but these negotiations are considered the most appropriate to provide a solution. Because the purpose of negotiations is to equalize the benefits of each party that negotiated earlier. So that no party feels disadvantaged from the negotiations .
Negotiation Tactics and Strategies
Negotiation techniques are not only done formally but can be non-formal for example like negotiations between sellers and buyers. In negotiations there are two important things that must be known, namely negotiation tactics and strategies. Tactics in negotiations are:
1. Make a schedule / agenda
The agenda created is the agenda to determine the time of negotiations. With this agenda, each party that will negotiate has time to think first.
Bluffing is usually used by negotiators with the aim that their opponents can agree on what they are doing and get negotiations as desired by negotiators .
Deadline tactics are considered to be very effective in urging opponents not to think for long and agreeing to what you are proposing.
4. Good Guy Bad Guy
A party who wants to win a negotiation will make a good guy or a good party and a bad guy or a party that looks evil.
5. The art of concesion
Whereas the sixth tactic is a tactic to ask for consequences on every request the opponent is granted.
Intimidation tactics are usually used if the negotiation stage does not end. Where this tactic is carried out by suppressing the opponent and emphasizing the consequences that will occur if the opponent rejects the outcome of negotiations.
While the negotiation strategy is:
Win win or integrative negotiation strategy is a strategy used if both parties want to get the same profit.
If between the negotiating parties want to get the maximum profit without thinking about their opponents, the win-lose strategy will be used.
Whereas the lose-lose strategy often occurs if the negotiating parties do not reach a mutual agreement.
Usually those who use a win-lose strategy are those who deliberately succumb to gain profits in their defeat.
Besides tactics and strategies negotiations, in negotiations there is still a structure. Where is this negotiating structure that arranges the negotiations into a unified whole. The structure of negotiations numbered 7, namely:
Orientation is an opening sentence for negotiations.
After the orientation, there is a demand for goods and services.
If the request process has been fulfilled, then it enters the fulfillment structure, namely the ability of one party to fulfill the request from another party.
Although the request has been agreed to be fulfilled, it still has to go through the bid structure. Where in this structure each party makes a bargain.
If the bidding process is completed, an agreement will be obtained.
This structure is carried out if both parties have reached mutual agreement for the price of the requested goods or services.
If all structures have been carried out then proceed to the final stage, which is closing. Where this closing usually contains closing sentences such as greetings or thanks.
Now that was a complete understanding of negotiations. Hopefully the information above is useful for you.