Definition of State Form
The word State in the English dictionary is "State" which comes from the Greek word "statum" which means to have a fixed or upright nature . Understanding literally is nehara is an entity or organization in which there are several members who will settle and have a common goal to be able to achieve welfare goals.
Whereas the definition of State Form is a grouping country based on distribution criteria between various levels of government within a country. The form of the state usually varies in each country, depending on the country's own agreement
A country can be called a state, if it has several elements, namely, elements of the people, and elements of the region. If a region does not have one or both, it cannot be said by a country.
Based on previous explanations about the notion of state form, there are also some experts who express their opinions on the shape of the state. The following are some experts and experts who talk about the shape of the state, namely:
According to an expert named Leon Duguit, said in his book entitled "Traitede Droit Constitutionel" that to determine a form of state whether the country has a benthic monarchy or republic is to use the method of appointment or appointment of head of state from the country .
If the head of state is appointed and appointed based on descent, then the form of the country is a monarchy. And if the state is appointed and appointed by election, then the form of the country is a republic.
An expert named Jellinek, said in his book entitled "Algemeine Staatslehre" differences in the form of monarchical or royal states and forms of republics based on the formation of state will
If the formation of a country's will is determined and decided by someone, then the shape of the country is a form of a monarchic state. And if the formation of the will of the state is determined by more than one person, then the form of the state is a form of a republican state.
the form of a republic because these countries are formed from the will of many people, but in reality based on HTN, these countries have a form of monarchical state.
Thus, Jellinek's opinion is still not acceptable or does not match the reality.
Types of State Forms
Countries have many forms, such as republics and monarchies. There are so many types of countries. The following are some types of state forms, namely:
1. Form of Unitary State
Understanding the form of a unitary state is a form of the most countries in the world, amounting to almost half of the countries in the world. The form of a unitary state has a 1945 constitution which was given full power to the central government in order to carry out various activities of foreign and domestic relations.
Problems in a country in the form of a unit related to foreign affairs all is the authority of the central and regional governments, which in principle are not allowed to deal directly with foreign countries. Some examples of unitary countries are Indonesia, France, Japan and other unitary countries. Usually the form of a unitary state does not have difficulties in establishing international relations.
The form of a unitary state has several characteristics. The following are some of the characteristics of the unitary state, namely:
- The form of a unitary state has only one central government and several subordinate regions.
- Every unitary state in the world has only one flag and one Basic Law
- Forming a unitary state only makes a policy related to the social, political, security, and economic fields.
- In the government of a unitary state there is only one legislature.
2. Form of States (Federation)
A union state or federation is a form of state which consists of several states and has one federal government that has the duty to control the sovereignty of the country.
All matters relating to security, finance, and justice in the form of a union state or federation are usually administered and regulated by the federal government. Some examples of union countries such as Argentina, the United States, Canada, South Africa, Switzerland, and Australia as well as the country of Malaysia are also included as union states.
Every form of state must have its own characteristics. So is the form of the union state or federation. The following are some of the characteristics of a union state or federation.
- Each state has its own government including its head of state and its cabinet, as well as its members.
- Each state is permitted to make its own legal basis. However, the rules and regulations of the law made by the state must be in line with the rules and legal basis of the union or federal state.
- Union or federal states have sovereignty out and also into the state or commonly referred to as with limits. It also affirms that the state does not have sovereignty, but the real power is still owned by the state.
- Each state is allowed to have its own state flag.
3. The Form of the United Nations (Confederation)
Forms of confederation or state unions are a combination of several countries through a number of international agreements that give certain powers to confederate countries . In this joint state form, each member state of the confederation remains a sovereign country and remains in the subject of international law.
Because in its true meaning, the confederation is not a state itself, but is a combination of several independent countries. The purpose of establishing a confederation is to form a joint state defense or it could be for foreign policy.
Although the confederation is a combination of several countries, the confederation is different from the federal state. Countries included in the confederation have full sovereignty, while states that join in federal states do not have sovereignty.
Forms of confederation can only survive until the 19th century. Countries that were formerly incorporated in the confederation long ago turned into a federal state, for example the Swiss state.
Other Forms of State
Besides the above state forms, there are also several other forms of state that have or are still valid :
1. The Form of an Oligarchy Country
The form of an Oligarchy state is a form of the state in which the government comes from a group, this group is usually referred to as a feudal group.
2. Form of Monarchical State
The form of state monarchy is a form of state where the government is only led by one person. His right to govern a country is only carried out and carried out by one person appointed by his people without any other thing that can disturb the claim.
3. Form of State of Democracy
The form of a democratic state is a form of state that is very familiar we hear and certainly many who already know it. One example of a country in the form of democracy is our country, Indonesia. The form of a democratic state is a country in which all governmental power is in the hands of the people. The point is that the people are freed from controlling the government in accordance with the wishes and desires of the community.
Our discussion this time is about understanding the shape of the state, along with its forms and examples. Hopefully this article can be useful. Thank you 🙂
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