Computers are a very important tool today to help you complete your daily work, in addition to their small size so they are easy to carry around.
But if we look at decades ago regarding the history of computers and their development, which at that time was not as sophisticated as it is now, the size was also very large and heavy.
The history and development of computers was divided into five generations, each generation based on the development technology used to make the computer was operating. From each technology development this results in smaller, cheaper, more efficient and more robust computers.
History of Computers from Generation to Generation
Consider the explanation below to find out more about computer history and its development from first generation computers to the present:  First Generation Computers (1946 – 1959) Vacuum Tubes
First generation computers were made in 1946 using vacuum tubes as basic components. The vacuum tube is an inefficient material because it produces excessive heat and also requires large electrical power to work.
ENIAC or Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer is one example of a first generation computer made by Mauchly and Echert. ENIAC uses 18,000 vacuum tubes measuring 1800 square feet and weighs up to 30 tons.
First-generation computers use machine language, which is the most basic programming language that can only be understood by computers. This generation of computers has limited ability to solve a problem at one time. To input paper punched cards and ribbons were used . The resulting output is a print-out. Although with very limited functionality, the cost of making this generation of computers is fantastic, around one million dollars.
Second Generation Computers (1959 – 1965) Transistors
Transistor technology is the beginning of emergence second generation computers, which replaced the role of vacuum tubes on first generation computers. The development of the transistor symbolizes the increase in technology at that time.
When compared to vacuum tubes, transistors have a smaller size and produce less heat, the failure rate also tends to be smaller when compared to computers made with vacuum tubes. As a result, transistors were able to create smaller, faster and cheaper computers compared to first generation computers.
In this generation computers also developed in their programming languages. Machine language that used to be used is now replaced with assembly language or commonly called symbolic language. This means the programmer can give instructions with words. At the same time high-level programming languages are also being developed such as Common Business-Oriented Language (CBOL) and Formula Translator (FORTRAN). This change in programming language gives the benefits of faster and more accurate computing.
Third Generation Computers (1965 – 1971) Integrated Circuits
In this third generation computer using the Integrated Circuit (ICs) replaced transistors as computer components. Transistors in this generation have been miniaturized and placed on ICs, one IC consists of several transistors, resistors and capacitors.
The IC was first developed by Jack Kilby, an electrical engineer who was later awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery. How could I not, with this discovery provides a significant increase in the speed and efficiency of a computer, and making computers in this generation far smaller than before.
Computers in this generation became the first computer where users were able to interact using keyboard and operating system interface an improvement compared to hollow paper.
As a result of developing this technology, computers at that time were accessible to the public because of the cheaper price and size
Fourth Generation Computers (1971 – Present) Microprocessors
This is the generation where you are now, the computers you see around you are computers of the fourth generation, "Microprocessors" are the main concepts behind this generation. In one chip, it consists of thousands of transistors and other cyclic elements that are connected to one.
The development of fourth generation computers is inseparable from Intel, one of the chip-making companies that created the Intel 4004 Chip which became the first step in the development of computer technology replaced the computer component which was as large as one room, now only as big as a fist.
In 1971 the first computer made by IBM was designed specifically for home use and in 1984 Macinthos was first introduced by Apple. Seeing the increase that occurred in computers in this generation gave birth to the idea of creating a computer network which eventually led to the development and birth of the internet . Other major advances that occur in this generation are the creation of the Graphical User Interface (GUI), the 1945 mouse [mouse] and other amazing advances to produce portable computers that can be carried everywhere or commonly called laptops.
Fifth Generation Computers (Now – Future) Artificial Intelligence
Fifth generation computers have technology based on artificial intelligence, and this is still under development. The purpose of developing this fifth generation computer is to produce a computer that is able to respond to the input of the language we speak and has the ability to study the environment and adjust itself.
Quantum, molecular and nanotechnology computers are the key to this generation of computer technology. So it can be said that this generation of computers will have intelligence in the service of intelligence in humans.
After reading the computer history above along with comparisons of each generation, you will be amazed by the achievements that have occurred. First generation computers, can you imagine how much building an office needs to store multiple computers?
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