Definition of Ecosystems
In general, ecosystems are an ecological system that has a reciprocal relationship between living things and the surrounding environment. The existence of this ecosystem, can be a collection of various living things to continue to develop together.
This ecosystem is used as a habitat for living things in order to carry out their lives in a longer period of time. The attitude of interdependence between living things in an ecosystem will have an effect because basically every living thing has dependence on other living things and with its environment.
Besides understanding Ecosystems in general, there are also several experts who explain the meaning of Ecosystems, as follows:
According to AG. Tasley, ecosystem is a unit of ecology in which there are structures and functions.
According to Woodbury, ecosystems are a complex overall order. Where there are habitats, plants, and animals which are considered as a whole unit. So that these things become part of the chain of material cycles and energy flow.
According to Soemarwoto, ecosystems are an ecological system formed by reciprocal relationships between living things and the surrounding environment.
According to Odum, ecosystems are a functional unit the basis in ecology which includes organisms and their environment (including biotic and abiotic environments), where both affect each other.
According to the Ministry of Forestry, ecosystems are an order of elements in life and the environment both biotic and abiotic which are wholly and thoroughly which influence and depend on each other.
In an ecosystem, there are several components that are joined to make a complete ecosystem. The following are some components of the ecosystem:
Abiotics are ecosystem components consisting of dead objects or commonly called non-living things. This abotic ecosystem is spread around our environment so that we can recognize it clearly. Examples of these abiotic ecosystems are Water, Air, Sunlight, Climate, Topography and Land.
Biotics are ecosystem components consisting of living things or living things. Where in the biotic ecosystem, consists of animals, plants and humans and their environment. Where humans are human factors that have the strongest influence on earth. So that many people take control to do anything for their environment. Based on their roles and functions, living things found in the biotic ecosystem are divided into three types as follows:
- Producers are living things that have the ability to convert inorganic substances into organic substances. Living things that play a role as producers are algae, mosses and green plants.
- Consumers, are living things that cannot produce their own food. Where these consumers depend on other living things. Examples of consumers are living things that fall into the group of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores.
- Decomposers, are living things that function as decomposers of organic substances to become nutrients. Living things that are positioned as decomposers have an important role in the food chain on earth. Examples of decomposer living things are algae, fungi, bacteria, worms, etc.
Types of Ecosystems
Apart from having ecosystem components, there are also two ecosystems kind of thing. The following are the types of ecosystems that exist:
1. Natural Ecosystems
Natural ecosystems are ecosystems that are directly created by Nature without human intervention in the process. Natural ecosystems are divided into two, namely land and water. Terrestrial ecosystems are ecosystems that are mostly from locations in the form of land or land. So that this ecosystem is called a terrestrial ecosystem. Whereas water ecosystems are ecosystems dominated by oceans or waters.
2. Artificial Ecosystems
Artificial ecosystems are ecosystems in which the process of human intervention is made. Artificial ecosystems are usually made by humans to meet certain needs. For example, to add beauty and optimize other energy functions. So that the existence of this artificial ecosystem can support activities that will be carried out by humans.
Examples of Ecosystems
Of the various ecosystems described, examples of each each type of ecosystem is as follows:
- Tropical rainforests, are land areas in the form of forests that are always wet or humid. This is because rainfall and the level of water storage in tropical rainforests have a high level. This tropical rainforest is found around the equator.
- Grasslands, is a plain that is only filled with towering grasses. In most cases, there are not many large grasslands because most of the area is dominated by grass.
- Desert, is a plain area with the least level of rain intention. The weather in desert areas is usually very hot, and with sandy conditions. Therefore, usually the level of wind in the desert area is very high.
- Freshwater ecosystems, are a type of aquatic ecosystem that has a low level or salinity. Such as rivers, lakes or swamps.
- Seawater ecosystems, are types of aquatic ecosystems that have high levels or levels of salt.
- Dams, are a type of aquatic ecosystem but are above sunken land.  Rice field, is an ecosystem that is used as a place or field of agriculture.
With some of the above information about the ecosystem and its explanation, it will be easier for you to find new knowledge about the understanding of ecosystems. This knowledge can be used as your reference in exploring knowledge related to ecosystems. Hopefully this article is useful for you.
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