We all certainly have done research and are familiar with the term hypothesis. In research, the first thing we do is formulate a problem, then make a hypothesis. Or you can see the weather on an application on a smartphone, from there you can find out the weather forecast for today or tomorrow using hypotheses and human thinking, then what is a hypothesis?
The hypothesis comes from Greek which consists of two words , namely Hypo and Thesis . Hypo  means below, and [thesis]  means the establishment, opinion that is enforced, certainty. If it is interpreted, the truth is still doubtful.
The hypothesis is the provisional suspicion of a problem statement that must be proven again. To prove the truth, a researcher must conduct research or experiments. If it has been tested for the validity of a hypothesis, the hypothesis has turned into a theory.
According to Zikmund, a hypothesis is a premise or assumption that is not correct and is still tentative in describing facts or phenomena and possible answers to the questions of a research research.
According to Kerlinger, a hypothesis is an affirmation in the form of an alleged relationship between two or more variables.
3. Prof. Dr. S. Nasution
According to Prof. Dr. S. Nasution, a hypothesis is an assumption of something we see with an effort to understand it.
According to Mundilarso, a hypothesis is a statement that has a low level of truth and still has to be tested using certain methods.
Hypotheses are expressed in theory, assumptions, personal experiences or other people, the conclusions are still very early. The hypothesis is a population statement that will be verified through samples from existing data or information.
Benefits of the Hypothesis
Hypotheses are used in a study because they have benefits for everyone. The following are the benefits of the research hypothesis.
- Explaining a research problem.
- Determining the direction of research.
- Creating an analytical framework to draw research conclusions.
- Describes several variables to be tested. method of data analysis.
Types of Hypotheses
1. Research Hypothesis
The research hypothesis is a conjecture that does not require statistical tests, because the purpose of this hypothesis is to get answers to the problem being studied. The research hypothesis is divided into several types, namely:
a. Descriptive Hypothesis
The descriptive hypothesis is the answer or transient guess of the sample in a community in which there are several different categories.
b. The Comparative Hypothesis
The comparative hypothesis is a provisional conjecture in a problem statement that questions the comparison (comparison) between two or more samples. The comparative hypothesis is divided into two parts, namely:
- Related (paired) comparison in two or more samples (k samples).
- Independent comparison in two or more samples (k sample).
c. Associative Hypothesis
Associative hypothesis is a provisional conjecture of associations (relations) between two or more variables in a study.
2. Static Hypothesis
The statistical hypothesis is an assumption used for testing analysis using a portion of data from all existing data. That way, the hypothesis used is inferential statistical methods.
Inferential statistics are statistical methods which are used to analyze sample data whose results will be generalized to the population in which the sample was taken. This hypothesis can use two variables or more. The statistical hypothesis can be divided into two parts, namely:
- The null or blank hypothesis, which explains the absence of differences between variables.
- Alternative hypothesis, which explains that there is an influence of relationships between variables
Examples of Hypotheses
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To better understand the types of hypotheses above, we need an example. The following will explain an example of these types of hypotheses.
1. Descriptive Hypothesis
An investigator wanted to examine whether or not meatballs in Bintang restaurants were made of rat meat. So researchers can formulate a problem such as the following: Are meatballs in Bintang restaurants made of rat meat?
From this study, the variable used is a single variable namely meatballs in Bintang restaurants, then the hypothesis used is a descriptive hypothesis. There are two hypothesis options that can be made by researchers in accordance with the theory they use, namely:
HO: Star meatballs in Bintang restaurants are made from rat meat, or
H1: Star meatballs in Bintang restaurants are not made of rat meat.  2. Comparative Hypothesis
A researcher wants to know how IP is active student organizations and college students only. Does it have the same value or not. So the researcher can formulate a problem such as the following, "Do students who participate in many organizations and college students only have the same IP?"
In this study there were multiple studies, namely students with many organizations and students without organizations. HO: Active student organizations have the same IP as students without organizations.
H1: Active student organizations do not have the same IP as students without organizations.
3. Associative Hypothesis
A researcher wants to know whether a novel titled "Dilan 1990" influences the level of reading of adolescents.
So the researcher can write the problem statement as follows: the novel titled "Dilan 1990" influences the level of reading of adolescents .?”♪19659018. This study uses multiple variables. The first variable is the soap opera titled "Street Children", while the second variable is the level of reading of adolescents.
Because the formulation of the problem questions the relationship between two variables, the hypothesis used is the associative hypothesis. There are two hypothetical options that can be made by the researcher in accordance with the theory he uses, namely,
HO: A novel entitled "Dilan 1990" influences the level of reading of adolescents.
H1: A novel entitled "Dilan 1990" does not affect reading rates teenage children.
4. Statistics Hypothesis
HO: There is no relationship between students 'height and skills in reading poetry.
H1: There is a relationship between students' interest in learning by the teacher explaining the material.
So many explanations about the definition of hypotheses, benefits, kinds and examples of hypotheses. I hope this article is helpful for all of us. Thank you.
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