Aceh is a province in Indonesia which has a capital city in Banda Aceh. Aceh Province is located on the northern tip of Sumatra island and Sabang island.
Aceh, famous for the Saman Dance, was named after Aceh Darussalam, then changed to the Special District of Aceh and Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam.
Aceh was known as a starting point ] the spread of Islam in 1945 and Indonesia in a very good role. Aceh is rich in natural resources such as petroleum and natural gas, besides that its forest products in the form of coffee are one of the best in the world, as well as Aceh's culture. One form of culture is a traditional house.
Aceh Krong Bade Traditional House
This traditional house is also commonly called Rumoh Aceh . This traditional house is a stilt house type which has 3 main parts and 1 additional part. Krong Bade house has a different shape but there are several things that characterize this house.
This house has a ladder at the front of the house as a place to enter. This house has stairs because the house is on the ground around 2.5 to 3 meters. The number of stairs from this house is also not arbitrary, which must be an odd number, around 7 to 9 steps. Krong Bade house is made of wood, while the roof is made of sago palm.
This house is a rectangular shape that extends from east to west, accompanied by carvings in its parts where carvings are different from one another. The number of carvings from the Krong Bade house depends on the owner of the house. Usually in the house there is no furniture such as chairs and tables, if there is a guest, the homeowner will provide a mat as a seat. This house is resistant to floods and earthquakes.
The main components of the Aceh traditional house are as follows:
1. Seuramoe-ukeu (Front Porch)
This room is the front which serves as a place for receiving male guests. Can also be used as a place to recite boys at night or during the day and also as a place to rest. This room has no rooms, so this is also used as a boy's bed
2. Seuramoe-likoot (Back Porch)
This room serves as a place to receive girls' guests. In Aceh, girls and boys are not united.
As with Seuramoe-ukeu this house is also used as a place to study female children during the day and night, as a place to rest and eat and also as a place to sleep because they do not have rooms . This room is as wide as Seuramoe-ukeu.
It is different only this is placed for girls and is located at the back. Whereas Seuramoe-ukeu is for boys and is located at the front.
3. Rumoh-Inong (Motherhouse)
This room is also referred to as seuramoe teungoh or middle part. Seuramoe teungoh is a core part of the Krong Bade house and its location is certainly located between Seuramoe-ukeu and Seuramoe-likoot.
This room is designed higher than the front porch and back porch which is separated by an alley connecting the front porch and back porch as well. This room is considered sacred and personal, has two rooms facing each other as the place of the head of the family or the owner of the house.
If there is one girl who is married then this room will be occupied by her. This room may not be entered by guests even by other family members because this is only for the head of the family. In addition to the bridal bed, this room is usually used as a body bath for deceased family members.
4. Rumoh-dapu (Kitchen)
This room is a kitchen from a house located adjacent to or connected to a back porch, where the floor is slightly lower than the back porch. The function that is no other than the kitchen is as a place to cook and store other kitchen utensils.
5. Seulasa (Terrace)
The base is located at the very front of the house and is connected to the front porch. The location from the beginning until now has been determined.
6. Kroong-padee (Rice Granary)
The Acehnese people have rice barns because the majority of the population is farmers. Rice barns are placed separately from the house, but remain close to this traditional house. The location can be on the front, side and rear.
7. Keupaleh (Gate)
The gate is made of wood and is shaded by a chamber above it. Not all Acehnese people have gates at their homes, usually the gates are owned by the community.
8. Tamee (Pole)
This pole is round in shape with a diameter of 20-35 cm with a mast height of about 150-170 cm. This pole is the most important part as a pedestal of traditional houses and the obligatory part must be in the construction of houses. This house can be moved to an affordable place without having to dismantle the house because of the pole.
Characteristics and Value of Aceh Traditional House Philosophy
- Has a motive. The first motive is the decorative motif in the form of Arabic inscriptions taken from the quran. The second motif is the flora motif in the form of carvings-plant size such as the shape of leaves, stems, roots or flowers. This carving is not given color, even if given the color must be red and black. This carving is commonly found in parts of the house such as stairs, walls, tulak angen, kindang, beams on the hood, and windows of the house. Furthermore, the third motive is the fauna motif, which is the carving of favored animals. The Acehnese also use natural motifs, rante motifs, tongues and more.
- This house has a water barrel in front of the house. its function is to clean the feet of those who will enter the house.
- Its shape is like a house on stilts functioning as a protector of wild animals.
- Having an odd number of stairs has the meaning of a religious symbol from the Acehnese community. East to West denotes a religious community.
- Having a lot of carvings signifies that Acehnese love beauty.
A woman who struggles to live happily with her family without others knowing her social status