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9 Characteristics of First Generation Computers and Examples

First generation computers were made around 1937. At that time the inventor who first created the computer concept was Charles Babbage. At that time he was able to create a machine which he called the Analytical Engine around 1882.

After that, John V. Atanasoff appeared with a computer designed by Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) around 1937. That's when his computer was made considered the first electronic computer in the world. The next few years, ENIAC appeared or stands for Electronic Nimerical Integrator and Computer. The ENIAC computer itself was introduced by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert.

In First Generation Computers many different characteristics of computers in the next generation. The following 9 characteristics of the first generation computer

1. Using a vacuum tube

on a first generation computer, the electronic components use vacuum tubes. These air tubes are also called vacuum tubes. At first, vacuum tubes were made for signal amplifiers. The vacuum tube is made of glass so that it is easily broken and can also transmit heat.

2. The size is as big as a room

In the first generation computer, the characteristic that is easily seen is its size that can fill a full room. This is due to the number of tubes needed for the computer to run. At that time, the ENIAC computer weighed 30 tons, was 30 M long and was about 2.4 M high

3. Requires large electrical power

Because there are many components and also large automatic power required is also very large. It was noted that at that time the ENIAC computer needed electrical power of 174 kilowats. From the power needed to make this computer very wasteful with electricity.

4. Still using one Program Language

One program language that can be read by First Generation Computers is only one. The language is machine language which is only the machine that can be understood. The code used is from 0 and 1 in certain sequences.

5. Quite a lot of heat emitting

The heat temperature produced by First Generation Computers comes from vacuum tubes or vacuum tubes. Therefore, when the computer is turned on, a large number of fans must be prepared.

6. Small memory capacity

Because it is still first and doesn't store much memory, the amount of memory needed is very little. very much different from today, which even has a memory capacity of 1 TB or Terabyte.

7. Slow process

The process of processing data from the beginning to the results requires a long time. That is because the program used is still simple and also how to process it is still there manually, which causes computers often hang and also the process is slow.

8. Use Magnetic Tape and Magnetic Disk

The first generation computer uses Magnetic tape and also Magnetic Dsk to store data. Magnetic Tape itself is the first model that is used as an input or output device when a data is entered into the CPU of a tape and the data from the CPU is stored again on another tape.



Whereas Magnetic Disk is a record-shaped storage. The records have discs that have magnetic or magnetic properties so they can record data. The results of recording the data are stored on the surface in the form of a binary code.

9. Its function for business applications

With the creation of computers, scientists realized that the benefits of computers in the industrial field were very important. As mentioned earlier, the computer was first made only to be able to calculate faster. But at that time in several European countries there was a world war. It also impacts the function of the computer itself. At that time, the computer was also used as a tool for breaking secret codes.

That was 9 characteristic features of First Generation Computers. After knowing its characteristics, here are examples of computers included in the First Generation Computer.

  • ENIAC – As mentioned earlier, ENIAC is the first generation computer to be operated. The component itself consists of 70,000 resistors. In addition, this computer uses 18,000 vacuum tubes and also five million solder.
  • IBM Selective Sequence Electric Calculator – This computer was made by Howard H. Aiken. He is an engineer from Harvard and an American. This computer has a length that is almost close to half a football field. The cable range itself reaches 500 miles. This computer is also called the Mark I
  • Colossus – This computer was made by the British around 1943. This computer was actually made to decode secret codes made by Germany at the time of the world war.
  • Z3 – Computers this was made by Germany in 1941. This computer was made to design an airplane and missile when the world war was still ongoing.

These are some examples of the generation of computers that were made at that time. Even though there were shortcomings and advantages of first generation computers [19459955]it was the blessing that the causes of computer technology were developing rapidly [1945955] to date can be used by all groups. At present, computers have a variety of more attractive designs and their performance is far better than before. Hopefully the article can benefit you all.

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