Knowledge in the field of technology is very important to learn. This is because currently technology is developing so rapidly and continues to develop over time.
It is undeniable that increasingly rapid developments can change various perceptions and impact on human life. One example is computer equipment which continues to be developed innovation to be able to cover the various needs of user activities. To support this, an operating system is needed in accordance with the needs and specifications of the computer to be developed.
In the operating system also requires a variety of forming structures so that it can produce a reliable operating system. To facilitate learning about what and how the structure of the operating system, will be explained in detail and in detail in the following:
A. Monolithic System (Simple Structure)
This monolithic system contains a collection of various procedures that can be called by other procedures to run the system. So that between procedures can work together in running a system .
Some examples of operating systems that have a monolithic system are like MS DOS and UNIX. MS DOS focuses more on providing fewer functionalities and cannot be divided into modules.
While UNIX focuses more on each procedure, it can call other procedures, so that each procedure can communicate with each other, and the kernel will contain all the services provided by system that will be used by users. The advantage possessed by the monolithic system is faster service access because it is done in one place.
B. Layered System
The operating system has a layer system. The point is that the operating system consists of various layers ranging from that to the top. So that each layer has its own purpose and function.
The lowest layer is commonly used as hardware, while the top layer is used as the user interface. The existence of this layer structure is used to reduce the complexity of the design of the operating system .
Each layer of the structure is the result of the implementation of abstract objects. Where the results of the implementation are encapsulated data and operations that can be manipulated. To be clear, the following types of layers are used in operating systems:
1. Hardware Layer
Hardware-related section. Usually consists of electronic circuits that are used to clear registers and read memory locations, instruction sets on processors and interruptions containing newly executed commands.
2. Operating System Layer
Operating system parts that deal directly with programmers that are specific to the operating system section. So the discussion will be more technical. This layer usually consists of ideas in program execution, secondary storage of computers, and the logic of each process that will run. All of these things require program code to be run correctly and as expected.
3. Completion Layer
This section includes the completeness of the previous section, so it is still related and related to the programmer. The completeness layer is tasked to overcome the communication of information that occurs and includes messages between processes.
In addition there is also long-term storage, access from external devices using a standard user-interface, and is responsible for ensuring external relations and internal identifier starting from system resources and objects.
4. Application Program Layer
This section deals with end-user computer applications. So it is closely related to user-interface that is easy to use by users in order to access applications. So the system can process information needed by the user.
C. Micro Kernel
The function of this micro kernel is to facilitate communication that occurs between client programs and various services in the user space. So that with this micro kernel can simplify and expand the operating system, and easy when it will be changed (transformation) to a newer architecture. In addition, by using a micro kernel, the program code will be safe because it is smaller.
D. Modules (Modular)
This modular structure starts from the kernel which usually has a collection of core components and is connected with the addition of services dynamically and during boot time. So to overcome this, the modular structure is done by using a dynamic calling module. Examples of operating systems that use this modular structure are Solaris, Linux and MacOS.
E. Virtual Machine
Virtual Machine is a type of structure that has a time-sharing system. time-sharing system has a function to be able to provide multi-programming capabilities and expansion of machine systems with a user interface that is easier to use. So that users will not feel confused in using this type of system.
The structure of virtual machines consists of 2 types, namely control programs and conventional monitor systems. Control program is used as a regulator of the functions of the processor, memory and input / output devices.
So that the control program will be directly related to the hardware to be used. Whereas Coventional monitor system was used to regulate the functions of the processes, information management and management of devices of the operating system.
F. Client-Server Model
Basically an operating system consists of various processes that are categorized as client and server. Client is a type of service request process, whereas server is a type of process that provides services. So that the process will start from the client requesting certain services, and the server will provide and send information related to the service desired by the client.
G. Object-Oriented Systems
Object-oriented operating systems mean that the operating system approach is structured using objects. So this approach also adopts object-oriented technology.
The structure of object-oriented operating systems is a highly structured operating system, so that it can easily separate services and their implementation. So the information generated is not mixed and makes users easier to understand. An example of an object-oriented operating system is MS WINDOWS. But not all use object-oriented systems.
The existence of a detailed explanation of the structure of the operating system becomes an understanding that is easy to understand and easy to understand for readers, especially people who are familiar with information technology or even the operating system.
Ease of learning This operating system will be a pleasant form of learning, because the discussion is packed with language that is easy to understand and not burdensome. So that it will be more easily understood by various groups. Hopefully this article can be useful for you.