Routing protocols are protocols in computer networks used to broadcast and study the connected networks and study the available network paths. With routing protocols, different routers can exchange information between one router and another router and get the most efficient routing route to destination.
Types of routing protocols vary, including: OSPF, RIP, BGP, IGRP, EIGRP, and IS-IS. In a way, all such protocols belong to dynamic routing . What is the difference between each protocol? In this article, we will discuss it for you. For your understanding, please refer to our previous discussion of routing table function on router so that you understand the purpose of this article
1. RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
RIP is a protocol that provides routing table information based on a directly connected router. Then, the next router will provide information to the next router that is connected directly with the router. The information provided in the RIP protocol is: host, network, subnet, and default route
This protocol uses the distance vector algorithm. The metrics performed on this protocol are based on the hop count for the selection of the best path. If the hop count is more than 15, then the datagram packet will be discarded and not forwarded. The routing table update of this protocol will be broadcasted every 30 seconds.
Various routing The RIP protocol is divided into two parts:
- RIPv1 (RIP version 1)
- Only support for class-full routing
- No subnet info entered in routing repair data
- Does not support VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask)
- There is a feature of broadcast routing fixes
- RIPv2 (RIP version 2)
- supports routing class-full and class-less
- subnet info entered in data routing repair
- supports VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask)
- there is a feature of multicast routing improvements
In general, RIPv2 is no different away with RIPv1. The differences are visible in the information provided between routers. In RIPv2, the information exchanged is authenticated. Another RIPv2 equation with RIPv1 is:
- Distance Vector Routing Protocol
- Metric of hop count
- Max hop count is 15
- Using port 520
- Running auto summary by default
Whereas RIPv2 with RIPv1 as follows:
- RIPv2 is a class-less routing protocol, which means RIPv2 includes a SM field in the update packet sent so RIPv2 can support VLSM & CIDR
- Sends the update package & accepts the update package version 2
- update to multicast address 22.214.171.124
- Auto Summary can be disabled
- Supports security function of authentication, which can prevent routing update sent / received from unbelievable source
What are the advantages of RIP protocol? The following is:
- Using the "Triggered Update" method
- Having timers to know when routers should return routing information.
- If a network changes, while the timer is not exhausted, the router must still send the information routing as triggered by that change (triggered update)
- Setting up routing using RIP is not complicated and gives fairly acceptable results, especially if network links are rare.
Whereas, here are the shortcomings of RIP: 19659007] The number of hosts is limited
2. IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
IGRP is a routing protocol developed by Cisco Systems Inc. in the mid-1980s. The purpose of IGRP creation is to provide a robust protocol for routing within an autonomous system. IGRP has a maximum hop of 255, but the default of its own protocol is 100. IGRP uses bandwidth and delay lines by default to determine the best route in an interconnect (Composite Metric, which consists of bandwidth, load, delay and reliability). This protocol uses the "distance vector" algorithm. Routing updates for this protocol are broadcasted every 90 seconds.
In IGRP, routing is mathematically based on distance. Therefore, the IGRP system has considered several things before deciding which route to take. As for things to note are: load, delay, bandwitdh, realibility. Since this protocol was created by Cisco, then in the collection the basic commands of Cisco there are commands to govern this protocol.
Here are the advantages of the IGRP protocol:
- Supporting up to 255 hop count
And the following are the drawbacks of the IGRP protocol:
- Number of restricted hosts
- Only applicable to Cisco routers
3. OSPF (Open Short Path First)
OSPF is an open standard routing protocol that has been applied by a number of network vendors and described in RFC 2328. This protocol is suitable for networks with different routers. For example, if your computer network has multiple routers, and not all of them are Cisco routers, then you can not use IGRP. so your choice to stay RIP v1, RIP v2, or OSPF. If the managed network is a large network, then OSPF is the only protocol option for all routers to perform routing.
OSPF works with a "link-state" algorithm called the Dijkstra / SPF algorithm. The workings of this protocol are: First, a "tree" with the shortest path will be built. Then, the routing table will be populated with the best paths generated from the "tree". OSPF only supports IP routing only. The routing table update in this protocol is floaded when network topology changes. The following is the advantage of the OSPF protocol:
- No generate routing loop
- supports the use of multiple metrics at once
- can generate multiple paths to a goal of dividing large networks into multiple areas.
- Time needed to converge faster
- can be applied to any brand router
The following are the deficiencies of the OSPF protocol:
- Requires a database great.
- More complicated
4. EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
This protocol uses the advanced distance vector algorithm and uses unequal cost load balancing. The algorithm used is a combination of distance vector and link-state, and uses Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) to calculate the shortest path.
Distance vector protocol maintains a complex set of metrics for distance to other networks. EIGRP broadcasts are updated every 90 seconds to all adjacent EIGRP routers. Each update only includes network changes. EIGRP is perfect for large computer networks. IGRP and EIGRP have both considered the existing bandwidth problems and delays.
What are the advantages of EIGRP? (19659009) Requires less memory and process.
And the following are the shortcomings of EIGRP:
- Can only be used for Cisco Routers
5. BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)
As a routing protocol, BGP has the ability to collect routes, exchange routes and determine the best route to a location within a network. But what differentiates BGP from other routing protocols is that BGP belongs to the category of routing protocol type Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP).
Update information on this protocol will be sent over a TCP connection. This protocol is commonly used as a connection between the ISP with ISP and or between clients with other clients. In practice, this protocol is used to create routes in internet traffic between autonomous systems.
The advantages of this BGP protocol are very simple installations. The shortcomings of this protocol, however, are limitations in the use of network topologies.
6. Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS)
IS-IS is a protocol used on computer networking devices that is useful for determining the best path for a datagram when directed to a destination. More details are defined in ISO / IEC 10589 2002 in the OSI reference design.
All of our articles this time around the types of routing protocols. Hopefully this article we can increase your knowledge about computer network. If you want to find out more about computer networks, you can listen to various network protocols computers we've discussed before.