Theories of Social Change
Here are some theories of social change that we need to know about, including:
1. Theory of Evolution
The theory of evolution in social change occurs slowly and in a long time in the community system. Social changes in this theory occur because of changes in the way organizing society work systems, patterns of thinking, and social development.
Social changes in this theory rarely cause conflicts because the changes last long (slow) and tend not to realized. According to Soerjono Soekanto, evolution has 3 theories, among others:
1) Theory of Uniliniear Evolution
Humans and society experience development in accordance with certain stages so that this change can make society develop from simple to more complex stages
2) Universal Theory of Evolution
Development of society does not need to be done through a fixed stage because human culture has followed a certain evolutionary line.
3) Multiliniear Evolution Theory
Social changes that can occur in several way, wherein the way is headed in the same direction by forming a better society.
2. Functionalist Theory
The existence of public dissatisfaction with the social situation that is happening is the main cause of social change. Dissatisfaction is felt by some people who do not want change. If the cons are only minority parties or groups, then with small force such changes will be difficult to achieve.
This can be seen in the backwardness of an element in society so as to bring social and cultural shock to the community.  3. Conflict Theory
Social change is formed due to conflict and tension in society, it can be in the form of conflict between the ruling class and the oppressed society. Low-class society wants a change that promotes justice. If the desired change is achieved, then society will live without class divisions.
It can be said that this theory originates from the class conflict between the oppressed groups and the ruling groups which later leads to social change. Social conflict is the main source of social change. The stronger group dominates more than the lower group. Examples can be seen between the bourgeois group and the workers (proletariat).
4. Cycle Theory
Social change in this theory is likened to a spinning wheel where the changing times cannot be avoided by humans and automatically cannot be controlled by anyone. Humans also can not prevent social changes that are natural and it is owned by every community environment.
A society must experience the name of decline and progress of a civilization (culture) and the change does not always bring good. This cycle occurs repeatedly and cannot be planned or directed to a certain point. Examples of changes in clothing and lifestyle models.
5. Linear Theory
Change moves towards certain stages or points that can be directed or planned. This can be seen in the change of traditional society to modern society. Society that initially developed with primitive patterns became modern. In addition we can see in the development of the colonial period to the present. In essence, this theory provides progress for society (up).
6. Theory of Social Movements
The source of this social change is social movements due to dissatisfaction with certain conditions that exist in the community, giving rise to these movements. Automatically a large number of people fight for these changes.
Factors Causing Social Change
Following are some of the factors causing social change, including:
1. Internal Factors
A. Increase or decrease in population
Rapid population growth causes changes in society such as the emergence of new social classes and professions. Besides the impact of this factor also changes the social structure and demographics that exist in society.
For example, it can be seen in the increasing number of scholars who are not balanced with the existing employment, causing unemployment. This can have negative impacts such as poverty and crime. With the advance of the Japanese state, many Japanese people did not want to have a family so that the workforce was reduced and the population would eventually run out.
B. The existence of new discoveries
There are a number of people who feel there is something lacking in their culture that is motivated to improve and perfect through new discoveries. New discoveries in this factor are divided into 2, namely discovery and invention.
C. The existence of conflict or conflict in society
For heterogeneous and dynamic societies disputes can occur between individuals or certain groups. With so many social groups, then automatically social groups have different interests as well. With the different interests causing social conflicts that lead to social change.
An example of inter-religious conflict in Ambon can be taken. The impact of this change is the segregation or separation between Christians and Muslims.
D. The existence of a rebellion or revolution
Rapid changes that occur within individuals and groups will have a major influence on society. A revolution or rebellion makes social change happen. Examples can be seen in the fall of the Russian empire led by the Tsar which was replaced by a socialist state by Lenin and Stalin.
E. The existence of an ideology
the existence of a set of interrelated beliefs, values, and norms can lead to certain goals.
2. External Factors
A. The physical natural environment that exists around humans
This change originates from the physical natural environment caused by the community itself such as natural disasters. When natural disasters occur, the community will evaluate themselves towards a new, safer place.
With this new place the community begins to adapt or adapt to the new environment. The adaptation process led to changes in the values adopted, environmental culture, etc.
Warfare between one country and another led to changes in social institutions and community structures. The war caused many changes such as the cold war between the US and the Soviet Union to make the Soviet Union split into new countries and with different political and administrative systems.
C. The influence of the culture of other societies
An increasingly open age does not close society or the state is free to interact with other nations and societies. Interaction between these two societies creates a tendency to be reciprocal.
Other cultures enter through globalization and the influence of technological and information development makes it easy for other countries' cultures to enter. Examples can be seen in the lifestyles of children who like K-pop, hairstyles and dress like the people of Holywood.
That is a brief and complete explanation of the theory of social change and the factors that cause social change. With this explanation, information is hopefully useful and can be used as a foresight about social change that is good or not. In addition, social change is expected to make a better and better generation. Thank you hopefully more knowledge.