Nail plants or commonly called ferns or ferns. In the English discussion these ferns are known as "fern". Nail plants are a group of plants that have a system in the true vessels or tracheophyta, even though these ferns do not produce seeds to breed.
Because of the sexual reproduction process these ferns do not use seeds, so these ferns use spores to be able to breed. Usually this method of breeding ferns is more similar to groups of fungi and moss organisms.
These ferns are also very easy to find growth in almost all parts of the world, except in areas that are eternal snow or ocean. In ferns often found in the country of Indonesia, even many parts of the ferns grow in areas in the wet tropics.
In the entire world of ferns are known to reach 12,000 species and a quarter more can be found in the Malesia region that surrounds Indonesia .
Characteristics of Nail Plants
In general, one of the most characteristic features of ferns lies in the young leaves rolling up the ends. The following are some of the morphological characteristics of ferns including:
- Some species of ferns are those of members of the Selaginellales plant and also Salviniales plants have male or female sexual spores that are very small or can be called microspores compared to female ornate spores or can be called megaspora or macrospora.
- In leptosporangiatae ferns whose members are Marattiales, the young leaves have a characteristic characteristic of rolling to the end and also scaly.
- At this plant size varies greatly, starting at a few millimeters and can reach a height of 6 meters.
- Nail plants do not produce flowers, but produce spores. Spores found in the spore box, aka sporangium. The boxes on these spores can accumulate in sorus. In sorus-sorus this gathers on the surface under the leaf strands.
- Nail plants usually undergo metagenesis or descent rotation, namely the sporophyte stage or can produce spores and gametophytes or can produce sex cells.
- Nail plants have leaves, stems, and also roots.
- At the appearance of the outermost parts of ferns there are various forms, ranging from tree-shaped or usually having no branches, creeping, shrubs, floating on water, epiphytes, to hydrophytes.
- Nail plants have transport vessels in xylem and phloem.
Classification and Types of Nail Plants
Nail plants are grouped into four divisions namely Division Lycophyta aka wire nails, Division of Filicophyta aka paku, Division of Psilopyhta alias paku ancient and Division Anthrophyta alias horsetail The following is an explanation of each of the four divisions.
1. Wire Spikes (Lycophyta)
Wire nails or division of lycophyta have rarely been found even included in the group of plants that are becoming extinct. This division group is usually referred to as wire nails because these plants have branches and branches that form like a fork.
The body structure of this plant is relatively complete, which has true leaves, stems, and roots. The leaves in this plant are small or microfil, do not have stems and leaves are one-boned. This form of wire fern is more similar to a pine tree, so wire nails are often referred to as ground pine.
2. True nail (Filicophyta)
Paku sejti or filicophyta division are ferns which can be easily found such as around shady houses, around rice fields and can also be found in pots which planted with ornamental plants. This true nail also belongs to plants that have a complete body structure.
True nails have true leaves, stems and roots. On the stem there are already embedded and form rhizomes. The leaves in this plant are large or macrophile and their forms are also diverse, having branched and stemmed bones. When this plant is young, the shape of the leaves will roll at the end.
Also, on the lower side there are many sporangiums. One example of true ferns is deer horns or plathycerium coronarium
3. Ancient Paku (Psilophyta)
As the name suggests, ancient nails, these plants have rarely been found and are becoming extinct. The population in this plant is already small. An ancient nail or psilophyta division is a naked nail and has no leaves. If any, these plants only have small leaves or microfiles.
Photosynthesis occurs in plants that contain chlorophyll. The ancient nail has no roots. Therefore, this ancient nail has no transport network. However, this plant has rhizoid which is used as a carrier of water and minerals. Plants are found in tropical and subtropical regions.
4. Ponytail (Arthrophyta Division)
Ponytail nail or division arthrophyta has a body in which the rocky branches are clearly visible in sections. Horsetail plants are often used by people as pot scourers or cauldrons, before the invention of a tool for rubbing steel.
Therefore, these plants are often called scouring plants. This plant grows in a single genus, namely Equisetum . This genus usually can live on land and also partly live in swamps.
5. Macrophilic Leaf
Nail plants with macrophilic leaves are ferns which have leaves that are quite wide. In this plant can be easily found in various places. This plant has a large shape on the leaves, and on the leaves found stalks.
This plant has leaf bones and also in the leaves have branches. These plants which have macrophile leaves also have cell differentiation .
Thus are several discussions about the characteristics of ferns and their types, and their calipifications. Hopefully this article can be a guideline or reference in the science you are looking for.
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