Definition of Principles and Approaches to Geography
As we know that geography is a field of science related to the surface of the earth. In addition, there are also those who say that geography is not only limited to the physical phenomena of the earth, but also discusses  the interactions that were carried out by humans towards the surrounding environment.
Every field of science that we study has principles their respective approaches. For example, in economics there are economic principles that serve as guidelines for carrying out various economic activities.
Likewise with geography which continues to progress to explain the phenomena that occur using steps and methods already modern. Geography teaches us various principles in understanding the characteristics possessed and their relationship with other problems. Then, what is meant by the principle of geography?
The geographical principle is a guideline or basis used in the study and disclosure of symptoms, factors, variables and geographic phenomena, for example the uneven surface of the earth to the existence of several types living things (humans, animals and plants).
In studying various symptoms above the face of the earth also requires a geographic approach. The definition of a geographic approach  itself is a special step or methodology used to analyze and understand various kinds of symptoms and geosphere phenomena, including interactions between living things and their environment.
Geographic Principles and Examples
In general, there are 4 geographic principles that are used as references and guidelines for examining various geographic symptoms. Below is an explanation of each principle accompanied by each example.
1. Principle of Distribution (Spread)
The principle of distribution is the most important principle in geography, where the cause of this principle is due to the symptoms of the geosphere or natural events which result in changes in physical and social conditions that differ from one place to another
In addition, another goal with the principle of distribution is to examine the relationship between a phenomenon with other phenomena that can be used as a guide for predicting the future. Below are some examples of the principle of distribution that occurred in Indonesia.
- The distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesia is separated by Weber and Wallace lines which are divided into 3 regions, namely the western (asiatis), the middle (intermediate) ), and the east (australis).
- Distribution of the availability of different water resources from one place to another.
- Different rainfall distribution in each region in Indonesia.
- Uneven distribution of mining goods in the region Indonesia. For example, western Indonesia focuses more on mastering petroleum content, while eastern Indonesia contains more minerals.
- Uneven distribution of population in Indonesia.
2. Principles of Interrelation (Linkages)
3. Principle Description (Depiction)
The next principle of geography is the principle of description, which provides a specific explanation of the characteristics of the geographic symptoms that are being observed, both in the dimensions of points, lines, fields or spaces. Geography adheres to this principle to provide an overview of geosphere phenomena produced through writing, tables, graphs and images ( maps ). Some examples of principle descriptions (depictions):
- Images of rainfall levels in the territory of Indonesia.
- Graphs that present data and facts about unemployment rates.
- Tables containing color blindness in each region in Indonesia.  Map describing the position of plates in Indonesia.
4. Principles of Corology (Spatial)
The last principle of geography is the principle of corology. This principle is the result of a combination obtained from 3 geographic principles that have been discussed, namely the principle of distribution, the principle of interrelation and the principle of description.
The purpose of this corology principle is to obtain the results of phenomena that occur in an area based on the location of the spread, type of interaction that occurs as well as integration of spatial angles. Some examples of the principles of corology are:
- In examining the high rainfall in Indonesia, it can be seen from the distribution of water circulation in each region, the cause of rain to the impact obtained from the phenomenon.
- To examine temperature conditions in urban and rural areas can be seen from the position of the sun reflected by tall buildings, while in the village there are more trees which result in lower temperatures than urban areas.
Approach to Geography and Examples
There are 3 types of approaches geography used, namely spatial approach, environmental approach (ecology) and complex regional approach (regional).
1. Spatial Approach '
The spatial approach ( analysis spacial is an approach to the diversity of earth space by examining each of the spatial aspects possessed, such as natural factors, geographical location and social conditions community culture. In a sense, researchers use this approach by examining the principles of distribution, interrelations and interactions that occur within it. Some examples of spatial approaches are as follows:
- A plot of land can be assessed from its spatial perspective and its efficiency. A piece of land can be expensive because of its strategic location or because of the high level of productivity that can be used in agriculture.
- In an effort to open land to build new settlements special research is needed to determine its landscape related to natural events that will influence adaptation life exists.
2. Environmental Approach (Ecology)
The ecological approach has a close relationship with biological sciences, namely seeing the relationship (interrelation) that is shown between living things with other living things or with other environmental components. In the sense that this approach requires analysis by looking at the relationship between biotic and abiotic components in influencing the ecosystem balance of the region. Some examples of the 1945  environmental approach that we usually see are:
- Flood phenomena that occur in an area can be seen based on the physical conditions of the area that trigger flooding, such as topography, soil type, high rainfall and also the condition of the building . In addition, flooding can also be seen from human behavior towards the environment, such as deforestation, diversifying agricultural land, culture of littering and so on.
- In the past, farming activities were only carried out once a year due to the rainy season. Whereas in modern times, the increasing number of people causes humans to continue to strive to develop more advanced irrigation systems so that agriculture can be carried out throughout the year and food needs will be fulfilled.
3. Complex Approach (Regional)
The complex approach is an approach that conducts studies by comparing regions on the face of the earth based on spatial and environmental aspects. Thus, it can be said that this complex approach is a combination of spatial approaches and ecological approaches.
Results obtained from a regional study approach will be poured into a map and studied through the field of cartography. Some examples of complex approaches are as follows:
- The North Pole region must have characteristics that are different from the equatorial region.
- In building a residential area consideration is needed of several factors, such as soil fertility, slope and regional accessibility. For example, settlements in the coastal area will be built with a higher foundation in anticipation of natural disasters.
Thus is the article on the understanding of geographic principles and their approaches along with each example. Hopefully the above article can be useful and add insight to all of us. Thank you.
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