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20 Computer Components With Example & Function! (+ Image)

For those of you who are in the tech world, may already know every component contained in the computer. However, for the layman understands only part of the external computer components only. In fact, if you look at the inside of computers there are so many devices in it that have their own functions and tasks.

The computer can be defined as a set of electronic equipment that work together to perform tasks, such as receiving data ( inputan), process data (process) and generate information (output). From that sense, you can understand that computers are not created by only one piece of equipment, but many tools to support the performance of a computer.

Generally, the components on a computer are categorized into 4 parts, the input component ( input device ), process components ( processing device ), output components ( output device ) and additional components, such as storage ( storage device ).

the computer will be able to perform the task properly and correctly, when each component is assembled or put together properly so that each component one is interconnected with other components. So, do you know which equipment is included in the input category? Process? or output

Components – Computer Components

Therefore, in this article will be discussed and explained about the 20 types of components contained in the computer along with their respective uses. To find out, consider the discussion below.

1. Motherboard

 computer component

Simply put, motherboard or commonly referred to as Mainboard, Baseboard is Printed Circuit Board ( Printed Circuit Board – PCB ). This board becomes one of the most important components in a computer. Because, with the motherboard every major component in the computer can be associated with other components. This motherboard holds all the components that have an important role in the system, such as CPU, RAM slot, VGA Port, USB Port and more.

Regarding its function, the motherboard has a function to provide access for each component in communicating with each other. In addition, the motherboard also serves to increase the flexibility of the computer itself. You can connect several enhancements, such as joystick with the help of the motherboard.

2. Processor (CPU)


CPU (Central Processing Unit) is one type of computer hardware used to handle the given instructions. The CPU is often also said to be the Processor which is the brain of a computer. Because, the CPU that regulates all activities and the course of the program contained in the computer.

Let's say, when you press Alt + F4 it will automatically close the program you are open. The set of instructions is CPU. As a major component, the CPU has important functions you need to know, which is to receive the instructions given, process the instructions, and then execute those instructions.

Usually, when buying a computer the first thing you see is the computer's specification. For example, a 32-bit processor is clearly different from a 64-bit processor. That is, computers that have a 64-bit processor can work much better compared to 32-bit. That way, you need to be more thorough in determining the CPU specifications to fit your needs.

3. Heatsink

Heatsink or PC Cooler is one hardware which has a physical shape like a fan made of copper and aluminum. Not without cause heatsink is designed on every computer or PC. Where the main purpose of the heatsink is the same as the fan that you know, which gives the cool temperature on the processor so that the performance of the processor remains stable and the heat temperature of the processor can be discharged through this heatsink.

However, now many types of heatsinks on the market . Each factory designs heatsinks with different physical shapes, but the function remains the same. In general, the heatsink works by receiving heat generated by the processor, then the heat spreads throughout the heatsink to assemble to the core of the heatsink. Then the fan contained in heatsink that is throwing the hot temperature.

4. RAM


RAM ( Random Access Memory ) is one type of computer hardware used as a storage medium. However, unlike the Hard Disk which is also used as a storage medium. As the name implies, Random means random. That is to say, RAM is used as a storage medium, but temporary storage and can only be accessed when the computer is turned on and random.

When processor instructions occur, the RAM serves to store data from that instruction. So, the RAM will work if the computer is still on, if it has been turned off then the instruction will be lost from RAM.

The general form of RAM contained in a computer is a chip. The chip you can add if there is a RAM slot in the motherboard. The larger the RAM specs are contained in your computer, the faster it will be performance from that computer. Therefore, to retrieve data stored, with high RAM will speed up the process of loading data and programs that will be accessed. Now, the commonly used RAM specification is DDR3 RAM. Although there is actually DDR4 RAM, it is still rare.

5. Hard Disk

 computer component for storing data

As previously mentioned that Hard Disk (HDD) is one of the computer hardware that is also used as a storage medium. Generally, in Hard Disk there is a disc, where it is the disk that has a role to store data permanently. When you turn off the computer, data you have saved before will be accessible when you have turned on the computer. Unless you delete the data manually or get a virus.

Much different than RAM can only store data or instructions while the computer is on, with Hard Disk you can store data, such as programs, documents, images, audio or videos permanently in your computer. With RAM, you do not have to be afraid of losing data, because the Hard Disk has the ability to do backup ie restore lost data.

If you have ever heard the term partition, then the Hard Disk can be partitioned. Understanding partition here is you can divide the storage owned Hard Disk into some desired part. Typically, Hard Disk is partitioned into 2 parts, ie as a storage of personal data and data storage operating system .

6. VGA Card [19659000] VGA Card ( Virtual Graphic Array ) is a computer hardware used to process and translate output into a monitor. VGA Card is often also said to be a Video Graphic Adapter. The presence of VGA Card in a computer does not give a big influence like other computer vital components. The use of VGA is more directed to things related to graphics, such as 3D design or gaming.

The main function of the VGA Card is to change the digital signal generated by the computer into a graphical display through the monitor. That way, computers that do not have VGA, usually the display screen becomes less good and not interesting. Nowadays, there are many companies that produce VGA Card, including NVidia, 3DFX, S3, ATi Matrox, SiS, Cirrus Logic, Tseng, Trident and so on.

7. Flashdisk


Flashdisk or often also called a USB Drive is a storage medium in the computer. The data storage is non-volatile ie the data will not be lost even if there is no electricity in it. As long as the data is not deleted, then the data will still exist without power. [1945904] Flashdisk can connect to a computer via a USB port located within the motherboard.

Regarding the shape, the flash has a simpler component compared to storage media such as Hard Disk. Flashdisk becomes an alternative as a replacement hard drive to store personal data and easy to carry everywhere because of its small size.

Initially, the flash has a capacity size of 512 MB. But as the development of technology, flash capacity continues to be developed, ranging from 1 GB, 2 GB, 3 GB, 4 GB, 8 GB, 16 GB, 32 GB and so on. In addition, Flashdisk is now widely used by people because the price is affordable compared to buying a hard disk.

8. Monitor


Monitor is a type of hardware (hardware) that acts as an output component (output). Monitor is often also called a computer screen. The screen is used to display the results of processing data into graphical form. This device has a very important role. Because, without a monitor, other computer devices can not be observed directly, except by using other output devices, such as projectors.

Some types of monitors that existed during its development, the CRT (Cathode Ray Tube ), LCD ( Liquid Crystal Display ), LED ( Light Emitting Diode ), and a Plasma monitor. For the type of monitor that is commonly used today is the LCD and CRT.

This type of monitor resolution can be known from the size of the LCD in inch size. For example, the screen size of a 17-inch monitor can have a resolution of 1024 x 768. In addition to the monitor type and screen resolution, there are several factors that affect the quality of the monitor, which are as follows:

  1. Dot Pit states the distance between two pixels. The smaller the distance, the quality of the displayed output will be better and the color sharp.
  2. Refresh Rate states how many monitors are refreshed in seconds. The faster the refresh rate the image displayed will be the better.
  3. Convergence states the level of pixel clarity and purity.

9. Keyboard


Keyboard is a hardware on a computer that acts as an input component, a device that serves as a tool to input data in the form of letters, numbers or symbols and deliver it to the CPU (Central Processing Unit) to be converted into digital signals understood by the Processor.

As the development of computer technology also affected the development of the keyboard. Currently, keyboards are already using the standard QWERTY format, which is already recognized as an International standard. Physically, the keyboard consists of a keyboard that has a variety of buttons, where the keys are equipped with their respective functions so as to process the process required by the user.

In general, QWERTY keyboard has 101 keys or keyboard with the arrangement as the following:

  1. Alphanumeric Key : A typewriter containing letters, numbers and punctuation marks, in which the current order is standard QWERTY
  2. Numeric Keypad : A special section of the keyboard containing numbers is used to perform calculation operations
  3. Function Key : This key is used to execute special commands associated with the operating system as well as programs in the computer.
  4. Control Key : Keys that provide control over the cursor and screen , such as Home, End, Delete, Insert, Page up and more.

10. Mouse


A mouse is a hardware that functions as an input component, that is, it receives the input given by the user. Named mouse because the physical shape resembles a mouse, with a cable that can be connected to a computer that provides a port in it.

If you note, the mouse is equipped with various flat buttons, such as right click that serves to create Options menu , left click function to select menu; when it is double-clicked it can work to open applications or programs in the computer, scroll buttons equipped with sensors to raise or lower the cursor

There are several types of mouse circulating in the market based on its detection: mechanical mouse, optomechanical mouse and optical mouse. Behind the success of the mouse at this time, there are figures who managed to find it is Douglas Engelbart.

11. Optical Drive

 optical drive

Do you know CD or DVD? Both devices are a type of storage media that belongs to the hardware type Optical Drive . That way, optical drive is a hardware that has the same functionality with hard disk or flash, that is as storage media. There are several types of optical drives:

  1. CD-ROM (Compact Disk – Read Only Memory) : a tool can be used to read CD
  2. CD-RW (Compact Disk – Rewritable) : is a tool that can perform two functions: CD reading and CD writing
  3. DVD ROM (Digital Video Disk – Read Only Memory) : a tool that can read CDs and DVDs
  4. DVD Combo : is a a device that can read CDs and DVDs can also write CDs, but can not write DVD
  5. DVD RW : is a tool that has a complete function, that is in addition to reading CDs and DVDs are also able to store or write CDs and DVDs.

12. SSD


SSD stands for Solid State Drive or Solid State Disk a device for storing data using a series of ICs (Integrated Circuit ) which acts as a memory for storing data persistently.

Generally, SSD has the same functionality as a Hard disk. However, SSD is an innovation in data storage. With SSD, data is stored on NAND-based flash memory chips connected to each other. The chip has a higher speed than flash disk.

If you first know the floppy disk, now its position has been displaced by the hard disk. So is the hard disk that must be displaced with the SSD. However, SSDs are not widely known to computer users. Therefore, the price is so high and quite fantastic.

13. Power Supply

 computer components for power requirements

Have you noticed when power source is off, but the computer is still on? That's because of a device called a power supply. Power supply is a hardware that has a function to supply power / voltage into computer components. Power is supplied to the motherboard, hard drive, heatsink and others.

Regarding its function, the power supply aims to convert AC current voltage to DC. Currently, there are several types of power supply, namely:

  1. Power supply AT
    Power supply of this type has a form where the power cable to be connected to the motherboard separated into two connectors, namely P8 connectors and P9 connectors. Therefore, at the time of installation it is necessary to make sure that there is no mistake in the installation.
  2. Power Supply ATX
    This type of power supply has a 20 pin cable that has been arranged into a single unit to be connected to the motherboard. Very rare error in the installation of this type of power supply.

14. LAN Card

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LAN Card commonly referred to as NIC Network Ethernet Card Ethernet Card or network card. This device is used to connect multiple computers with the network, especially within the LAN area. For example, a computer network in a building, one house, one office and another. Typically, a LAN Card is installed in the PCI slot contained on the motherboard.

Generally, there are two types of NICs, namely NICs that are physical and logical. Examples of physical NICs are Token Ring, NIC Ethernet and so on. While the logical example of a NIC is a Loopback Adapter and Dial-up Adapter.

Each NIC has been assigned an address number known as MAC Address which is static. The meaning can be changed by users. Currently, along with the development of LAN card technology has two main types, namely LAN Card Cable and LAN Card Wireless .

15. WLAN Card

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WLAN Card or Wireless LAN Card or commonly called WiFi Adapter is a network-related computer device. Functions the same as LAN Card, which connects the computer with network access. However, with the WLAN makes it easier for you to connect the network without having to carry cable anywhere just to connect with the network

Wireless Card allows computers to connect to the network without using a cable. The workings of Wireless Card is wireless will receive signals coming from network devices, such as Access Point. In general, the components in the WLAN are:

  1. Mobile or Desktop PC where for mobile PC can be installed on PCMCIA port, while for desktop PC via PCI Card or USB.
  2. Access Point devices that can convert radio frequency (RF) signals into digital signals via cable media
  3. WLAN Interface equipment installed in Mobile or PC desktop in the form of PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association), PCI Card or through USB port
  4. Antenna used to amplify transmit power

16. Sound Card

 Sound Card

As the name implies¸ Sound Card deals with audio and sound requirements in a computer. Let's say, when you listen to the sound coming from the computer using a headset or speakers, the sound you hear is processed by Sound Card. Some types of sound cards based on how to install in a computer or laptop, namely:

  1. Onboard Sound Card
    In general, the sound card is attached directly (attached) on the computer motherboard. This type of sound card is a chipset that is attached directly to the motherboard so that its performance is influenced by the processor.
  2. Sound Card Offboard
    This offboard sound card is plugged into an ISA or PCI slot. The advantage of this type of sound card is the sound quality produced to be better than the onboard sound card.
  3. Sound Card External
    Generally, this external sound card is plugged into a computer using a USB port. This sound card is suitable for sound recording.

17. Printer


Printer included into hardware (hardware) which acts as output component. This device serves to display data in printed form, whether paper, image or graph.

In addition to functioning to display printed documents, the printer also has other functions, such as duplicating documents, scanning documents and functioning send data (fax). Where in the beginning, the printer is only used to print documents that display data in the form of text, images or graphs in a sheet of paper.

With the presence of a printer, it can be easier for people who have the need to print documents. The types of printers that are widely available in the market are dot matrix printers, ink jet printers and laser jet printers.

18. Scanner


Scanner is an input component, a tool used as a scanner or duplicate documents or objects digitally and stored into a computer. Scanner itself has many types and forms. Here are some forms of scanners on the market:

  1. Scanner Drum
    As the name implies, this drum scanner is shaped like a drum or tube. This type of scanner is a remarkable type of scanner. Therefore, the resulting image resolution is quite high, where the resolution reaches 24000 ppi (pixel per inch) . There are several advantages obtained from the drum scanner, which can scan the ancient documents, the amount of vibration produced is very minimal, can perform scanning on documents in the form of large paper
  2. Flatbed Scanner
    Called the flatbed because of its physical shape is flat, like a bed. This is the type of scanner that is often encountered in the world of document scanning. This is due to its small size and is compatible with some standard paper sizes, such as legal, letter to A3. To perform a scan of a document using CCD technology (Charge Coupled Double) .
  3. Film Scanner
    This type of scanner is used to store photos and videos using negative technology. Unfortunately, this type of scanner is rarely used. Using a scanner movie can convert and convert objects stored in negative films into digital form.
  4. Roller Scanner
    Roller scanner is a type of scanner that has the same functionality as a flatbed scanner, which performs a scan of a document or image physical sheets. What distinguishes it from flatbed is the method used. If the flatbed uses CCD technology with the eye being driven to scan the document, while the roller using the document is driven.

19. Speaker


Speaker is a hardware that acts as an output component, where speakers can output from the CPU in the form of sound or audio. Speakers in the computer consist of parts that are interconnected with each other. Here are the parts contained in the speaker:

  1. Census of the cavity (conus)
    This component serves to produce pressure waves caused by air movement that can produce sound.
  2. Membrane
    This component serves to accepting an induction process derived from a magnet, in which the process produces sounds derived from the resulting vibration
  3. Magnet
    A component that functions as a magnet in general, that is, generates a magnetic field for induction processes originating from the membrane [19659080] Coil
    This component serves to channel the energy of motion to conus. The coil can move due to changes that occur in the magnetic field.
  4. Casing
    This section is used to protect all vital components contained in the speakers. There are so many models of casing circulating in the market, for example made from paper, plastic, metal or other materials.

20. Webcam


Webcam otherwise known as Camera Web is a camera term that can be connected to a computer. In general, the function of the webcam is almost the same as the camera function in general, which allows you to process messages such as chat via video in real-time.

Webcam usually consists of a lens mounted in a circuit board that can be used to capture the image signal, casing (cover) and cable support. A webcam is equipped with software, where the software works to take pictures coming from digital cameras in a certain time interval to be connected via an internet connection.

A webcam is designed not to store images. Therefore, the main function of webcam here is just to record and send images captured directly by the component. Until now, the webcam can still be found in the market at a price vary depending on the features and capabilities in capturing images.

That's some kind of computer components and their functions complete with pictures. Thus, you can know every component contained in your computer and can understand its function properly and correctly.


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