One genre in Indonesian literature that is younger than poetry and novels is short stories or short stories. According to the historical records of Indonesian literature, writing short stories began around 1910.
It was Mohammed Kasim with Suman Hasibuan who first introduced various forms of writing that contained short and funny stories. Since then, the form of writing short stories (short stories) began to be known in Indonesia.
The 1930s were the years when short stories experienced a beautiful period. Lots of short stories produced by Indonesian writers. This is supported by the presence of two important magazines such as the Guidelines for Society and Poedjangga Baroe. Short stories published at that time had a lot of themes about humanity, movements toward nationality, revolutionary themes, and funny stories.
Characteristics of Short Stories
According to the Indonesian Literature Encyclopedia (2004), what is meant by short story or short story is a fiction that focuses on one character in a situation, so as to give a single impression of the multiplication that underlies the story. Because of its shape, short stories reflect more quickly the reality around the author faster and more diverse than novels
As a fiction or fiction, short stories are built by two main elements namely intrinsic elements and extrinsic short stories . Intrinsic elements of short stories include theme, plot, setting, characterization, point of view or point of view, mandate, and language style. Meanwhile, the extrinsic element of short stories includes cultural, social, or moral values.
Like other literary works, short stories also have their own characteristics. The characteristics of the short story are as follows.
1. Not too long
As the name implies, short stories or short stories are short stories in shape. Short here means that the story can be read in one sitting.
A good short story is a short story that can leave a distinct impression on the reader continuously from the beginning sentence to the end times. Therefore, the story is told in a concise, concise, and not too detailed way. The length of the short story is determined by the limited number of words used and the short presentation of the story.
2. The number of words is limited
The short length of a short story depends greatly on the number of words used. Regarding the number of words used, there is no uniform opinion.
There are those who state that the number of words used in short stories ranges from 500 – 5000 words. There is also the opinion that the short story consists of less than 10,000 words.
Another opinion states, the number of words used in the short story is approximately 5000 words or equivalent to 17 pages. In fact, some argue that a work is called a short story when the number of words used reaches 15,000 words or equivalent to 50 pages.
3. Structure of short story writing
Generally, short stories are written by referring to certain writing structures namely beginning, content, and end. At the beginning, the story is written as interesting as possible and easily remembered by the reader. The contents section tells about one incident completely and completely. Then at the end, the story closes with a surprise.
4. The events or content of the story are presented concise and concise
Short stories are not only marked by the limited number of words used, but also the events or content of the stories conveyed.
Generally, events or the contents of the story in a short story are presented briefly but contain a very deep impression for the reader. Compared with other literary works such as novels events or short story contents are also presented in a concise and direct manner to their goals.
5. Contents of a story about an event
Short stories or short stories usually only tell or tell one event that is peeled completely and intact. That is why in the short story usually does not describe the whole story of a person's life but only one important phase, namely from the development of the soul to the occurrence of crisis but not to cause a change of fate as in the novel.
6. Short story theme
A theme is a story idea. The usual themes raised in short stories are problems of daily life such as love, friendship, dissension, and so on. Usually, the theme of short stories is closely related to the author's attitude towards life. Short story authors generally channel themes through story lines, characters, and the language used.
7. Single and straight grooved
Like other works of literature short stories also have storylines. What is meant by flow is a series of events or events that have a causal relationship. Compared to the novel plot which is more complicated and long, the plot of the short story is generally simpler.
In addition, judging from the quantity of the plot and its development, short stories are generally single-stranded and advanced. A single flow is a plot that has only one line of story development. Meanwhile, forward flow is a plot that tells a series of events arranged sequentially from the present to the future.
The flow occurs because of conflict. In the short story there are various forms of conflict, among which are as follows.
- Conflict between a character and himself or inner conflict.
- Conflict between a character and another character.
- Conflict between a character and his environment. 19659032] Conflict between a character and God or his beliefs.
8. Limited characters in the short story
In the short story, the characters shown are not many. The characters in the short story have their own ways of dealing with problems. This is due to differences in background and character of each character.
What is meant by characterization is the author's way of describing and developing the character of the characters in a short story. The portrayal of the characters in the short stories is done in a very simple, concise and in-depth manner. There are two techniques commonly used by the author in describing the characters in short stories, namely analytic and dramatic techniques.
Analytic techniques are techniques of depicting character characters that are carried out directly by the author, whereas dramatic techniques are techniques of depicting character characters through behavior, environment dialect of language, way of thinking, or images made by others
10. Economical in the use of the word
Because short stories are presented in a concise, concise, and direct manner, the words used are very economical. In addition, the words used in the short story are words that are very well known of society . In a sense, the words used are words that are often used in everyday life.
Set or setting in a short story or other literary work not only refers to the location or place of occurrence of a physical but also non-physical event such as customs, methods, beliefs and values that apply in a place.
The setting of a short story can be factual or fictional. The setting depicted in the short story is only for a moment and in a relatively limited environment. However, the most important thing is that the short story setting must be able to support other elements of the story, for example supporting the theme of the story, supporting the movement of the story line, producing certain characters, and being the basis for the expression of the values the author wishes to convey.
The main is to reinforce or strengthen the reader's belief in the course of a story. Therefore, the better the knowledge and imagination of an author, the better the setting he creates in the story.
12. Causing certain effects on readers
Events or content of stories that are presented in short stories should be able to cause certain effects on the reader namely a single and unique effect. The single effect is meant to cause the unity of the mind and actions which can be further developed through a direct line from the beginning to the end.
That is all the discussion about the characteristics of short stories and their explanations. May be useful. Thank you.