In the previous article, we discussed in detail the definition of geography scope to principles in geography. Well, in this article I will explain the concepts that exist in geography equipped with their respective examples.
As we all know that geography is a discipline that studies everything related to the earth. Starting from the process of the formation of the earth, the distribution of its territory, flora and fauna, climate and weather to the concept of population.
Based on this, you need to know the concept of geography to help in understanding geography more deeply.
In general, the concept of geography is the basis or guideline used to understand phenomena or events related to the earth, both physical and social.
In the concept of geography contains a design or detailed description of patterns, relationships, distribution and also functions relating to earth objects.
There are 10 main concepts in geography which will be explained below along with explanations and examples.
In geography, location is the main variable that plays a role in providing clarity about the position of a place, objects or objects, events or symptoms that exist on the surface of the earth. In the sense that this location is related to the place where a phenomenon or event occurs.
Basically, there are two types of locations known in the concept of location, namely absolute location and relative location.
locations that are static or cannot change under any circumstances, both due to differences in climate and time. This location is guided by the Earth's astronomical point. So, you can see the absolute location of a region based on longitude and latitude.
Longitude ( longtitude ) is an astronomical line that divides locations into the eastern and western hemispheres, while latitude ( latitude ) is an astronomical line that divides the earth into 2 parts, namely the northern and southern hemispheres.
- The astronomical location of the Indonesian state is located between 6 ° N – 11 ° LS and 95 ° East – 141 ° BT.
- The astronomical location of the Philippines is located at 5 ° N – 21 ° N and and 117 ° East – 121 ° East.
Furthermore, this relative location is the opposite of absolute location, ie location can be seen based on the characteristics of other regions around it. Thus, this location has properties that change or change according to the current position of the object.
In geographic studies, this relative location is very necessary in conducting studies so that this location is often referred to as geographical location.
Example:  Geographically, Indonesia is flanked by 2 continents (Australian and Asian continents) and 2 oceans, namely the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
Distance is a geographic concept in the form of space or gap connecting two locations or objects based on units of length and time. This concept is very closely related to several scientific disciplines, namely social, economic, and political. That way, experts agree to divide the distance into 2 parts, absolute distance and relative distance.
Absolute distance is the space or gap that connects two locations based on units of length, such as kilometers, meters, centimeters and so on.
- The distance of my house to the Museum is 22 Km.
- Distance from Medan City to Padang is 773 Km.
Whereas relative distance is the space connecting two locations based on time units, such as days, hours, minutes and seconds.
- The distance traveled during the trip from Medan to Jakarta is 43 hours by land, while the distance traveled to the same place by air is 2 hours.  If it is not jammed, the distance of the house to the market takes only 15 minutes.
3. Affordability [concept] affordability in geography ” width=”450″ height=”338″/>
Affordability is the maximum distance that can be reached from one region to another. In other words, affordability not only takes into account distance, but also the ease of accessing the area, such as the facilities and infrastructure provided to the area.
- To go to Batam city, you can take it by boat.  The process of evacuating victims of landslides that occurred in Sukabumi is difficult due to the breakdown of transportation access.
Patterns are structured forms that are related to natural phenomena or phenomena that occur on the surface of the earth, both natural and social phenomena. In addition, this concept can also be interpreted as a geometric order that causes interactions between humans and nature or vice versa.
- In general, settlements in big cities in Indonesia are built together.
- River flow which has branches such as tree structures called dendritic rivers .
5. Geomorphology of geomorphological concepts in geography ” width=”500″ height=”333″/>
Furthermore, geomorphological concepts or often referred to as morphology are concepts that describe the shape of the earth's surface that occurs due to natural forces or human activities. There are 2 types of energy that result in various forms of the earth, namely endogenous energy and exogenous energy.
Endogenous energy is energy originating from within the earth. The function of this endogenous force results in the formation of the structure of the earth's surface, such as volcanism, tectonism and seism. Whereas exogenous energy is energy originating from outside and its nature damages the structure of the earth's surface, such as erosion, sedimentation, weathering and others.
- Sumatra and Java Island are separated by the Sunda Strait.
- To the east of Sumatra many swamps are flowed by large rivers.
What is meant by the concept of agglomeration is the concept of distribution which is a grouping of human activities with all their activities in a region. The concept of geography is very closely related to the economic motives .
- The craft industry area was built at a short distance from the residents of 1945, 1945.
- In the city big cities like Jakarta have a very real grouping of people's lives based on social and economic status.
7. Value of Use
The concept of usability value is an advantage possessed by a region that has its own value for other regions. This use value is expected to produce potential from the region that can support the welfare of the community.
- The highlands can be used for farming, while the lowlands are suitable for industrial use.
8. Interaction or Inpendency
Interaction or interdependence is a geographic concept that relates to interactions carried out by one region and another. In the sense that a region cannot fulfill its own needs, but has dependence on other regions.
- Indonesia is famous for the much-needed wealth of spices by the state which has cold weather, such as Europe.
- Plants that thrive in mountainous areas will be channeled to cities or regions in need.
9. Area Differentiation  concept of area differentiation – Geography Concept 
As the name implies, differentiation is also called difference. That is, this differentiation is related to the concept of geography which describes a characteristic that distinguishes one region from another.
- Generally, people living in mountainous areas have a livelihood as farmers, while residents living on the coast have a livelihood as a fisherman.
- Usually, land is sold based on its location. Land on the edge of the market will be sold quite expensive compared to land in the interior due to its strategic location.
10. Space Linkage
The concept of space linkage is a concept that explains the relationship between one region and another region, causing interactions between regions.
- Forest fires that occur in Kalimantan cause smog felt by the region in the vicinity.
That is a complete explanation of the 10 concepts of geography along with their respective examples. Hopefully the above article is useful and can help you in completing the task. Thank you.
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