As we have seen that the countries in the world are grouped into two groups namely developed countries and developing countries. Classification of a country into a group of developed or developing countries is based on a certain size or criteria such as economic level, level of mastery of science and technology, and the quality of the population.
Generally, characteristics of developed countries include having economic levels , Science and technology, and high quality population. Conversely, developing countries are countries that have economic levels, low levels of mastery of science and technology, and low quality of population.
Therefore, developing countries are often referred to as low and middle income countries, less developed countries, economically less developed countries, or country is not developed. There are many developing countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.
Characteristics of Developing Countries
A country is classified as a group of developing countries because it has several characteristics. The characteristics of developing countries include the following:
1. Middle-class gross national income per capita
Developing countries generally have middle-class gross national per capita income between $ 1.2026 – $ 12.375. The grouping of countries based on per capita income levels was carried out by World Bank in 2018 .
2. Low level of life
Most of the population in developing countries generally have a low level of life. Only a small portion of the population has a decent standard of living. The economic gap between the two population groups is also very wide.
The low level of life of people in developing countries can be seen from the level of per capita income, housing conditions, health facilities, education level, mortality rate, life expectancy, and the level of community despair.
3. Low levels of productivity
Low levels of life have an impact on low levels of productivity. The low productivity level is caused by poor management, low education level low quality of labor, lack of capital, lack of natural resources, and low work ethic.
4. High rates of population growth
Until now, developing countries still find it difficult to suppress crude birth rates to below 20. This is what causes high rates of population growth in developing countries. Not surprisingly, nearly two-thirds of the world's population is in developing countries.
5. The high number of population dependence
The high rate of population growth by itself has an impact on the increasing number of children. This makes the population dependency rate in developing countries also higher.
6. High unemployment rates
High unemployment rates are also a feature of developing countries. Generally, the forms of unemployment that exist in developing countries are pseudo unemployment and open unemployment.
Pseudo unemployment is evident from the low productivity of work even though they work full time. In addition, apparent unemployment is also evident from those who work less than what they can do. While open unemployment is evident from the large number of people who sought work but there were no jobs available.
7. Highly dependent on the agricultural sector
Developing countries are very dependent on the agricultural sector because almost 30% of national income is contributed from the agricultural sector. Conversely in developed countries only 5% of the agricultural sector contributes to national income.
8. Highly dependent on primary products
Exports of developing countries are generally more than primary production such as agricultural and mining products than secondary or tertiary production such as services, trade or industry. This is the opposite of developed countries where export activities focus more on secondary and tertiary products.
9. Dependence in international relations
Most countries in the world have the status of poor and developing countries. In order to survive, these poor and developing countries often borrow funds from developed countries .
This status creates a gap in various fields that is very sharp between developing countries and developed countries make developing countries seem to be a country whose rank is lower than developed countries. As a result, richer developed countries can control the economy in developing countries.
When this happens, developing countries become easily dictated by developed countries. One form of this dictation is that developed countries often compare the terms of the loan with the conditions of HAM in developing countries. If the condition of human rights in a country is considered to be very concerned, then loans may be delayed or even revoked.
Examples of Developing Countries
From these measures, countries that are grouped into developing countries are countries that are located in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Following are two examples of developing countries, namely Indonesia and China.
Indonesia is an island nation located in Southeast Asia. Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world after China, India and the United States. Indonesia's population in 2019 is estimated to reach more than 270 million. More than half population Indonesia lives on the island of Java
The population density of Indonesia reaches 148 people per km². Meanwhile, according to the Central Statistics Agency, Indonesia's population growth rate in 2017 reached 1.34% per year. To reduce the rate of population growth that is still high, the government issued a family planning policy.
In the economic field, Indonesia's per capita national income in 2018 reached US $ 3,840. According to World Bank regulations in 2018, a country is categorized as a developed country when it has a minimum national income per capita of US $ 12,376. As for developing countries, the per capita income is between $ 1,2026 – $ 12,375. As such, Indonesia is a developing country with a lower middle-income national income.
Like other countries in the world, Indonesia is also involved in various international institutions such as ASEAN, UN, APEC, AFTA, MEE, ADB, IMF, ECOSOC, World Banks, etc.
2. People's Republic of China
If you see the rapid development in all fields carried out by the Chinese state, most people would think that China is included in the group of developed countries. However, in fact China is still a developing country.
This country located in East Asia is the country with the most population in the world of 1.4 billion people in 2017. Meanwhile, according to UN projections, the population of China is 1 , 43 billion people with a population growth of 0.43% in 2019. The population density is estimated at 145 people per km².
Most of the country's population lives in villages and only around 20% live in cities big and small. If Indonesia relied on the Family Planning program as an effort to suppress population growth, China adopted a policy of one family of one child, which began in the 1970s. However, this policy was later stopped in 2016.
In addition to having the largest population, China is also the country with the fastest growing economy in the world. According to the IMF, as of 2018, China is the second largest economy in the world with an average nominal GDP of US $ 13.5 trillion. For 2019, the total income obtained by China according to the IMF is estimated to reach $ 27,331 trillion with per capita income reaching $ 19,520. Meanwhile, the total GDP is estimated at 14,216 trillion with a per capita income of $ 10.153.
The People's Republic of China became a member of the United Nations in 1971 and replaced the Republic of China as a permanent member of the UN Security Council. The PRC is also a member of several other international institutions such as the G-20, BRICS, APEC, WTO, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
That is all about the characteristics and examples of developing countries in the world. May be useful. Thank you.