Definition of Rights and Obligations
Every individual must have rights and obligations for themselves and in the nation and state. Rights and obligations certainly have a close relationship, but have different meanings. If we do an obligation, surely our rights will be fulfilled. However, if you demand rights first without carrying out an obligation. How can? Then what is meant by rights and obligations?
Rights are something that is absolutely owned by everyone from birth and their use depends on each individual. According to the Big Indonesian Language Dictionary (KBBI), rights are true, belonging, belonging, authority, power to do something that has been determined by law, rules, etc. or true power over something.
Whereas the obligation is something that must be carried out with full responsibility. According to KBBI, obligations are something that is required, which must be carried out; work, duties according to law; everything that is the duty of mankind.
To understand more about rights and obligations, let's see the understanding of rights and obligations according to the following experts.
According to Prof. Dr. Notonegoro, rights are the authority to receive or do something that should be received or carried out continuously by certain parties and cannot be done by any other party which in principle can be prosecuted by him.
2. Soerjono Soekanto
According to Soerjono Soekanto, the definition of rights is divided into two, namely:
a. Relative rights (relative), this right is realized in the law of agreement or engagement such as, the right to collect debts, or the right to settle an achievement.
b. Absolute or absolute rights, consisting of:
- Rights in HTN (State Law) to the authorities requesting tax, to citizens of human rights.
- Personality rights, rights to life, body rights, rights of honor and freedom.
- Family rights, husband and wife rights, parental rights, children's rights.
- Rights to material objects, copyrights, trademarks and patents.
3. John Salmond
According to Salmond, rights are divided into several senses, namely;
1. Rights in the narrow sense, namely rights that are paired with obligations such as:
- Rights that reconcile to someone as owner;
- Rights addressed to others as holders of obligations between rights and obligations correlated;
- Rights can contain obligations to other party to make a commission or not do (omission) an action;
- Rights can have targets arising from commission and omission;
- The right to have a title, is an event that becomes the basis so that the right is inherent to the owner .
2. Independence, the right to grant independence to a person to carry out activities given  by law but not to interfere with, violate, or abuse so that it violates the rights of others, and the release of the rights of others.
3. Power, rights granted to, through the way and legal means, to change rights, obligations, liability or others in legal relations.
4. Immunity or immunity, the right to be released from other people's legal powers.
According to Prof. Dr. Notonegoro, obligation is the responsibility to give something that should be allowed or only given by certain parties that cannot be carried out by other parties who in principle can be forcibly prosecuted by those concerned. Obligations are something that must be carried out.
According to Curzon, obligations are divided into several senses, namely:
a. Absolute or absolute obligations, addressed to oneself, are not paired with rights and relative that involve rights on the other side.
b. Public obligations, in public law relating to public rights are obliged to comply with public rights and civil liabilities arising from agreements correlate with civil rights.
c. Positive obligation, this obligation requires the implementation of something and negative obligations, does not implement something.
d. Universal or general obligations, obligations addressed in general or to all citizens of 1945 aimed at certain groups and special obligations, emerged from certain legal fields, agreements.
e. Primary obligation, this obligation does not arise from illegal acts. Examples of obligations not to defame and sanction obligations, arise from unlawful acts such as paying losses in civil law.
Differences in Rights and Obligations
both are interconnected, but rights and obligations also have differences! Come on, see the difference between rights and obligations that you should know. There are 6 differences between rights and obligations, namely:
- Rights can be interpreted as the right to own or do something. And it is a privilege given to the community by a governing body.
- Obligations can be interpreted as something someone must do because of law, necessity or because it is their job. This is a person 's responsibility by a government body, which must be done by the individual.
- Rights are authority owned by people.
- Obligations are jobs that must be completed by people who are privileged by their rights.
- Right intended for oneself.
- Obligation directed at most other people.
4. Connection to society
- Rights are what we get from society.
- Obligations are what we do for society .
- That right can be defended or challenged by the court.
- Citizen obligations cannot be challenged by the court.
- Rights based on privileges granted to someone.
- Obligations based on accountability for carrying out duties by individuals.
Examples of Rights and Obligations
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